Soldier's Delight Hundred in Baltimore County

SOLDIER'S DELIGHT HUNDRED IN BALTIMORE
COUNTY.


Soldier's Delight has been one of the most extensive tracts of
land in the State; it filled at one time a large place on the maps
and in the records; yet I cannot find any one who knows much
about it, and, when I resided in Baltimore County, I never was
able to come across any one willing to admit that he lived there.

I know that I did not live in Soldier's Delight, though often
accused of it, and though adjacent to it, as I was adjacent also to
" Possum Hollow " and to " Dumb Quarter." It used to be said
at Princeton College that all the North Carolina students claimed
residence either in Virginia or South Carolina—just across the
line—and there are to-day hundred of likely farmers travelling
the Liberty and Reisterstown roads, who will inform you, with
delicious sincerity, that they dwell "just on the edge" of Soldier's
Delight.


The reproaches which the ancient hundred had to meet are
not as sharp now, however, as they were at one time. The tract
is increasing in value as it diminishes in extent. When I first
knew it, about 1844, there must have been several thousand acres
of wilderness in the tract, covered thickly with scrubby black oak
and sassafras, with a fringe of small pines and spruces—only two
roads, the Lyons' Mill and the Deer Park, traversing it in a
winding way. It was the easiest place in the world to be lost in,
and about the worst place, too, for it was full of pits and shallow
shafts, sunk in search of the chromic iron ore which abounded
there. It was the place of all others to catch a boy's fancy, however,
for these stunted black oaks and pea-stick sassafrases were
the primaeval forest. This land had never been cultivated. It
was just as the Indians had left it, and there were still legends of
solitary deer seen bounding swiftly across its deep openings, and
of bears encountered by belated coon-hunters. At that period it
was said of Soldier's Delight people that some of them only came
out ouce a year—to vote—and that It often took them till Christmas
to find their way home again. It abounded in game. The
hollows were full of hares; the squirrels from all the country side
around came there after the black oak acorns, and every September,
just about the equinox, great clouds of wild pigeons used to
descend upon it, for acorns and sassafras berries.


I can well remember my first visit to the place. It was in one
of these September seasons when the pigeons are supposed to sit
still on the trees in order to give you time to take good aim at
them. I had beeu in the habit of spending my vacations at Mr.
Henry Fite's place, called " Harmony Hall," which was next to
Soldier's Delight, but not in it, of course. Mr. Fite, whose wife
was my kinswoman, was an ardent sportsman, and a capital shot
—if you gave him his own time to it. He was stout, and after
dinner, when the squirrels were nutting or the pigeons flying,
nothing delighted him so much as to go to a portion of his property,
which he called " Standfast," and which was so overgrown
with scrub oak and sassafras that I should have thought it part
of Soldier's Delight, but for the fact that he protested it was not
—and wait, in a blind, for the squirrels to bark and the pigeons
to patter down their nuts. The law of the chase was to keep perfectly
still, and, as Mr. Fite usually had his after dinner nap,
sitting comfortably against a tree in the "blind" while I remained
painfully awake, I am able to remember all about it. To compensate
me for this tedium, the kind old gentlemen used sometimes
to rig up his shandrydan and take me to Soldier's Delight with
him. Afterwards I used to take my gun and go thither myself,
and the features of the landscape, now almost totally changed by
the impertinent intrusions of cultivation, are indelibly imprinted
upon my memory. If you took the line of the Deer Park road
you came almost suddenly to a spot where the fence ceased, the
great forest melted down into the dwarfish umbrage I have spoken
of, and your horse, from plunging fetlock deep in sticky red clay,
came suddenly upon a hard dry road that rang under his hoofs
with more elasticity than an asphalt pavement in winter. This
roadbed was one of the best in the world, though vitiated sometimes
by the outcropping of huge green or grey boulders. It was
never muddy; it could not be cut into ruts ; it dried in an hour
after the heaviest and most protracted rains. There was no soil,
so to speak; an inch and a half depth of it only, thin and porous,
yielding nutriment to sedge, heather and poverty-grass. There
were no briars, save, in hollows, some dwarfed eglantines of most
exquisite fragrance. Underneath, was one mass of serpentine
rock, finely comminuted on the surface, and overlying the deposits
of chromate of iron. This land lay very high. The road traversed
two or three rounded shoulders of hills, until it brought
you to the highest. Berry's Hill, where in 1753 John Berry was
hanged in chains for murder—the legends about his execution are
still told throughout the neighborhood. From this point you
have one of the finest views I know anywhere.

When the atmosphere is clear you can see all around from the Blue Ridge
Mountains to the Eastern Shore. Yonder are the Catoctin hills;
here winds the valley of the Patapsco ; over there is St. Thomas'
Church, and over there again Doughoregan Manor. This way is
Annapolis, and yonder flows Pipe Creek. As I first saw it, Soldier's
Delight was singularly park-like for the work of nature.


The woods were not continuous. The oaks grouped themselves in
little groves, in which the quercus ilicifolia, with its compact head
and its glistening waxy leaves, looked very handsome, in spite of
its gnarled and weazen trunk and limbs—and the sassafras were
distributed in orchards. At intervals an open glade extended
down the hill side until it disappeared from sight in a briary
ravine. No wonder they called the place Soldier's Delight. Why
should people be ashamed of hailing from this hunter's paradise ?
That, I suppose, came from the fact that the place was an elevated
tract of barren soil, tilled by poor white people adjacent to
fertile lands held by large slave-owners. Even in my time, some
three or four families whose estates bordered on Soldier's Delight,
the Worthingtons, Randalls, &c., must have held nigh upon
20,000 acres almost in a solid body, while beyond these, on
several sides, were some of the chief manorial tracts in the State.

Few people in Soldier's Delight owned many negroes, and the
aristocrats on the fat acres in the lowlands rather lorded it over
them in cousecpience.

They reckon without their hosts, however, who imagine that
Soldier's Delight, as originally constituted, included only poor
land and barren hill tops. At one time it embraced the richest
lands in the State, the plateau of Westminster, the Pipe Creek
and Middletown Valleys, the rich bottom lands of North Branch,
where 20 barrels of corn to the acre is not an unusual crop.
Soldier's Delight, in fact, like Baltimore County, had uncertain
but very wide limits in its earlier stages. The County and the
Hundred were both laid off as our western territories are now,
with the view to further subdivision as population flows in.
Baltimore County has furnished land for Kent, Cecil, Harford,
Carroll, Frederick, Howard, and Anne Arundel Counties. Indeed,
if we follow the original boundary between Baltimore and
Prince George's County, the old county line would have run to
the westward of Hagerstown before it struck Mason and Dixon's
line. That boundary was the direction of the upper Patuxent.

The old Soldier's Delight Hundred began at the Patapsco, not
far from the present Relay House. Its eastern boundary line was
the Old Court road, extending from Elkridge Landing across
country to Joppa. This road, which still follows the original
bed and crosses the Reisterstown road at the Seven Mile House
and the York road at Towsontown, is one of the oldest roads in
the State. The Annapolis worthies used it to go to Joppa and to
Philadelphia before Baltimore was thought about; and it was the
Indian path from the Susquehanna to the Potomac at Piscataway.
At or about the Reisterstown road. Soldier's Delight Hundred
met Back River Upper Hundred. The dividing line between these
two election districts ran northwest through the sites of Westminster
and Taneytown to the Pennsylvania line, all of Baltimore
County southwest of that line falling to the Soldier's Delight.

This old Hundred, therefore, at one time included parts of what
are now Cross and Lisbon Districts, in Howard County, with
portions of what is still called "Carroll's big woods"—that is to
say, the Forest—the second and part of the fourth districts of
Baltimore County, the Freedom, Franklin, Woolery and New
Windsor districts of Carroll, and the Liberty and other districts
of Frederick County west to the Blue Ridge.

Its early population was not at all in proportion to its size.
In fact, when the Hundred was first laid out, there were no people
in it at all, except in the neighborhood of Elkridge. Baltimore
County was peopled very curiously. The matter is worth looking
into because it accounts for the tardy settlement of our city here.
I doubt very much whether we should have had a city on this
spot at all, but for the iron ores on the Middle and South branches
of Patapsco. Baltimore is girded with a belt of very barren land,
lying in a semi-circle just outside " the Belt." From Hunting
Ridge west to Elysville you find it all barren. That whole width
of country, northeast to the Eeisterstown road, is the "White
Grounds," a cold clay, full of boulders of trap rock, and impossible
to drain. The Germans have lately brought it into tillage and
made it productive, but it lay idle for a long while. The barren
Soldier's Delight section joined this on the northwest and then
you came round to the Bare Hills. There was nothing to invite
settlers in any of these lands. Settlers, in fact, did not go upon
them. They turned up their noses at the Patapsco and entered
Baltimore County by way of the Gunpowder, the Susquehanna,
the Bush, Back and Middle Rivers. It was not until settlements
had been pushed far up the Gunpowder and Middle Rivers that
the fertile valleys of Long Green and Green Spring were discovered.

Simultaneously with this discovery, Anne Arundel
planters found out that there were fertile lands to be had beyond the
White Grounds. To this fact is due the circumstance that there
is such a diiference in the population of the Harford County and
the Howard County sides of Baltimore County. The heads of the
valleys were taken up by Anne Arundel planters; the more
eastern parts by men who came from the rivers or down from
Pennsylvania. The heads of the valleys were settled late, however.
Worthington Valley was not patented until 1740, and the
mass of the population for years after that was gathered about
the rivers.

I have spoken of " Carroll's big woods." In fact, the whole
interior of the country was called "the back woods," and the
whole interior of Baltimore County, down to the top of the hill
above us here, Charles and Saratoga Streets, was known as " the
Forest." Little Sharpe Street, indeed, which led right up to that
corner, was known as Forrest Street originally. The French
troops, after the surrender of Yorktown, were encamped in the
woods where the Cathedral now stands. All this gives force and
intelligibility to the proposition which the Rev. Benedict Bourdillon,
rector of St. Paul's Parish, made to the Vestry of that
Parish in May, 1741, to build a chapel of ease for the accommodation
of the forest inhabitants of the parish. This led to the
building of Saint Thomas' Church in Baltimore County.


Dr. Ethan Allen, in his very interesting sketches of the history
of this church, says : " The Forest Inhabitants were the residents
if what was then called, as it has ever since been, the Garrison
Forest. It was so called, because of a fort and a garrison of
soldiers, under the charge of Capt. John Risteau, high Sheriif
of the County, stationed there, for the defense of these frontier
inhabitants against the Indians. The garrison was not far north
from where the U. S. Arsenal now is, and was on Capt. Risteau's
plantation. This forest was in subsequent years, by some not
knowing the previous history of the neighborhood, called Garretson
forest, but was so called erroneously." Dr. Allen is partly
right, partly wrong. There was a family on the edge of the forest
of the name of Garretson, and this may have led some to fancy
the derivation Dr. Allen hints at; but that is a modern perversion.
All the old settlers knew the name to be Garrison Forest.


Few understood why. There was a garrison there, not only in
Capt. Risteau's time, but much earlier. It was possibly not
always seated on that same spot. I am inclined to believe, however,
that it was always located near the summit of Chesnut
Ridge. The relation between Garrison Forest and Soldier's Delight
must strike every one. There must have been a connection
between the two, and I think it likely that the name Soldier's
Delight was ironical.


When the Indians became troublesome, it was the policy of the
Provincial government to plant a fort or block-house near them,
to overawe them and prevent them from plundering the settlements.


The fort was always an outpost, and in advance of the
settlements. Thus, when the Susquehannocks threatened war and
water iucursious, Col. Utie planted a fort on the island which
bears his name in the mouth of the Susquehanna. When the
Shawnees came down into the valleys of Frederick County,
Governor Sharpe built Fort Frederick far up the Potomac. Before
that, there was a fort at Piscataway, and another one north
of it, at Garrison Landing, or Bladensburg, both to keep our Indians
at home and to prevent other Indians from raiding upon
them. The post in the Forest of Baltimore County was meant
to serve several purposes, among others, to prevent Elkridge
Landing from being surprised by the Susquehanna Indians, to
guard the old court road, and to keep the hunting Indians west of
the Monocacy from descending on the various river settlements.
It was moreover a resting place and a post of the forest rangers,
who rode their patrols around from Bladensburg to Joppa. In
making this circuit, and they made it frequently when the Indians
were on the war-path, the rangers crossed at what used to be
called the forks of the Patapsco (the intersection of the north
branch with Morgan's Run) until they struck what is now known
as the Washington road, leading from Westminster to the Federal
capital. In so doing they had to go through the tangled wilderness
I have described. They called it Soldier's Delight because
it was so difficult to get through and so easy to get lost in. Thus
the section which still bears the title gave its name to all the rest
of that widely extended district.


The records of Council proceedings and of the meetings of
Assembly are filled with instances of those Indian alarms which
led to the establishment of the Garrison in the Forest. In June,
1692, for instance, we find the Council meeting at Job Larkin's,
in Elkridge, to take cognizance of the Indian troubles in Baltimore
County and appoint rangers. Thomas Thurston was then
put in command of the County soldiery. John Oldon writes to
the Assembly on the same subject in 1696. Next year there is
a letter from Mr. Boothby, and another letter complaining of
" Indian insolence." The rangers must have been rather expensive
to maintain ; they were often discharged only to be put
immediately to service again, and their accounts were carefully
audited. I find that in 1697 the troops at Piscataway and in the
Forest Garrison were under the common command of Col. Addison,
who was chief officer of the rangers intrusted with the protection
of the frontiers of Baltimore and Prince George's Counties.


These Indian troubles in Baltimore County began in 1666,
when we find some account of English murdered at the mill in
Baltimore County. The next year there was a conscription to
defend the province, every 20th person was called out and Baltimore
County's quota was 36, showing a population of 720, nearly
all of whom were east of the Gunpowder. The Garrison in the
Forest was established about 1680, and the worst of the Indian
troubles were over by the end of that century. The Piscataway
Indians wandered off westward in 1699, and did not return in a
body to their homes any more. The rangers were discontinued
in the County in 1698, but the garrison was still maintained. It
was necessary, because, while settlers pushed into the interior along
the rivers on both sides of the County, they still avoided the
middle part, and the Indians used to hunt a great deal in Soldier's
Delight and down through the heavily wooded country where
Jones' and Gwynn's Falls have their head-waters. My kinswoman,
Mrs. Marcella Worthington, daughter of Joshua Owings, who was
born in 1748 and lived till 1842, often used to speak of the
Indian hunters who took shelter and got their bread in her
father's kitchen, paying for such kindnesses with venison. The
Indian troubles continued off and on until 1744, when the treaty
with the Five Nations was negotiated at Lancaster. After that
they gave no more annoyance until the defeat of Braddock. Then
indeed for a time they caused alarm even in Baltimore and
Annapolis, and their raiding parties crossed the Monocacy.

Dr. Allen notes the curious fact that in 1756, when there were
still comparatively few inhabitants to be found north of the
church, "and the county was mostly an unbroken wild-wood,
where the Indians and wolves prowled not unfrequently, and the
wild deer were often seen and hunted"—"after the defeat of
Braddock, in 1775," he says, "the Indians passed down the side
of Fort Cumberland to within 60 or 70 miles of St. Thomas, in
large parties, for murder and plunder. It created great alarm
over all this region, ^.ud it was probably at this time that we
hear of those who attended the church on the Lord's Day, burnishing
their arms and preparing their ammunition on Saturday
evenings, and next day at the sanctuary placing their guns in the
corners of the pews during the hour of divine service. This was
no doubt so, and yet all this not one hundred years ago [he
wrote in 1852] in what we now call old Maryland."


The excitement soon subsided, however, and the central part
of the country filled up very rapidly. Still, there were settlements
up the Potomac as far as the Monocacy before population came
into Soldier's Delight. It was not until 1740 that Samuel
Worthington took up the lands in Worthington Valley. Captain
Worthington, his grandfather, had a large estate on the Severn.

One of his grandsons took up a large tract of land, part very
rich, on the Baltimore County side of the Patapsco, from Elysville
to Marriotsville and extending across into Soldier's Delight.

Other settlers passed across in the same way; more spread up
from Back and Middle Rivers and from Jones' Falls and the
Patapsco, and in 1741 we find Rev. Mr. Bourdillon proposing to
give the Forest inhabitants a church. These people could not
attend St. Paul's Church in Baltimore town because there were no
roads. The town was divided from the fertile forest country by
several almost impassable ridges, and the roads followed the lines
of the valleys, without attempting to cross the ridges, so that it
was easier to go from Joppa to Elkridge than from Pikesville or
Randallstown or Towsontown to Baltimore.

The General Assembly passed an act in 1742 in accordance
with the petition of the rector and vestry of St. Paul's, empowering
William Hamilton, Christopher Gist, Samuel Owings, Christopher
Randall, and Nicholas Haile to receive voluntary subscriptions
for buying a piece of land and building a chapel on it. The
parish was to be assessed to make up deficiencies. Briefly, the
lot was selected, and the present St. Thomas', or Garrison Forest
Church, as it is commonly called, was built.

Dr. Allen gives the names of the original contributors and the
amounts they subscribed. Mr. Bourdillon gave 2,000 pounds of
tobacco. Mr. Joseph Cromwell gave £4. He lived in Soldier's
Delight, and in 1775 his son Nathan was one of the Revolutionary
Committee of Safety for that election district. Edward Fotterall
gave £3. Christopher Randall, who gave 300 pounds of tobacco,
was of Soldier's Delight. It was he who gave his name to
Randallstown, though it was his grandson who tilled the fine
property near Randallstown called " Fell's Forest." Charles
Ridgely lived at Hampton, in upper Back River Hundred; he
gave £3 10s. Thomas Harrison, who gave £3, lived in Baltimore.
Dorsey Petticord and William Petticord lived on the edge
of Soldier's Delight, near the Patapsco. This was a family that
had travelled up by degrees, taking new lands from time to time
all the way from St. Mary's. Peter Gosnell lived in the heart of
Soldier's Delight. The Gists had the property now owned by the
McDonogh School and other land further up the Reisterstown
road. Of other names in the list which belong to families still
holding their original homesteads, I notice Helm, Ashman, Baker
(in Soldier's Delight), Treadway, Choate (Edward), Seater, Stinchcomb,
Murray, Howard, Gill, Bell, Chapman, Haile, Cockey. John
Risteau's place is now in part owned by Mr. Thomas Cradock;
Joshua Owings' place, in Soldier's Delight, went by his daughter's
marriage to Thomas Worthington, who also represented Soldier's
Delight in the Committee of Safety in 1775. Joshua Owings was
one of the first vestrymen of St. Thomas's Church, and acted in
that capacity and as church warden several times. He afterwards
became one of the first converts of Robert Strawbridge to Methodism
; his son Richard distinguished himself as an itinerant Methodist
preacher, and his house was one of the regular stopping places of
the preachers of that denomination on their rounds. Asbury made
it his headquarters and has left some pleasing memoranda about
the family.


The first vestry of St. Thomas' Parish consisted of Nathaniel
Stinchcomb, John Gill, William Cockey, Joshua Owings, John
Hamilton, and George Ashman, Peter Gosnell and Cornelius
Howard, wardens, and Christopher Randall, register. Cornelius
Howard's home place joined that of Joshua Owings. The old
Stinchcomb homestead, on a ridge back of Randallstown and
looking down upon the Old Court road, is standing now, apparently
just as it was first built. The Gills still hold the old estate
near Dover, and you cannot go amiss for Cockeys in the upper
Back River Hundred.


Soldier's Delight, when this Church was first built, still maintained
its original proportions. But it and Baltimore County soon
began to have cantles cut out of their broad sides. In 1748
Frederick County was established, and in 1750 the boundaries
between it and Baltimore and Prince George's Counties were
defined, so that Baltimore County and Soldier's Delight ran no
further west than the Monocacy. In 1773 Harford County was
cut oif from Baltimore.


In 1775 Back River Upper Hundred had been divided, and,
besides its owu district, furnished those of Middlesex and Pipe
Creek. Old Soldier's Delight now comprehended Soldier's Delight,
North Hundred and Delaware Hundred. Delaware was that part
of Soldier's Delight lying in the forks of the Patapsco. Rev. Mr.
Cradock and his parishioners had built a chapel of ease here, which
is now the Parish Church of Holy Trinity.


Dr. Allen's book abounds in curious particulars about St.
Thomas' Parish. The names he gives are in great number and
nearly always there is some interesting history connected with
them. I often think that people do not pay a proper attention,
in conducting historical investigations, to names of persons and
places and to roads. The history of Maryland could almost be
written without other aid if one had but the names of the people,
the situs of the roads, and Bacon's and Kilty's laws and the
Council book to help out. Names cling to localities in a wonderful
way, and yet they travel about as mysteriously as the Rose
of Jericho, and sometimes they vanish as suddenly as the Indian
tribes vanished from Western Maryland. In Talbot County, for
instance, there have always been, from the first, families of the
name of Harrison, Benson and Dodson. A hundred years ago
there were 150 of the name of Spencer in that county—a hundred
and fifty years ago the Edmonstons were both wealthy and numerous
there. Now, there is not a single Spencer in the county,
nor, I believe, any Edmonstons. Yet I decline to believe these
two families exotic or incapable of being naturalized. The Gists
of Soldier's Delight have disappeared from there, but you will find
them in the West, in Kentucky and elsewhere. The Owingses
and the Deyes are disappearing—even the fat lands of Frederick
County could not keep them up.


Dr. Allen's little volume contains an anecdote which must
afford some consolation to our modern politicians. It proves that
there is nothing new under the sun, even to constructive expenses
and tenderness as to " records." The old vestry of St. Thomas'
Church existed in the days when vestries were vestries. They
had police power. They could present people for Sabbath-breaking
and other infringements upon the canon law and the ten
commandments, and they were finable themselves for non-attendance
at vestry meetings. These occurred once a month, by
statutory provision, and if a member was absent without excuse,
he had to pay 100 pounds of tobacco. The St. Thomas' Vestry
were zealous, they lived a long way off, they thought the laborer
Avas worthy of his hire, and accordingly, on April 16, 1750, we
find them putting a very trifling charge upon the parish, to wit:
"Agreed, to have a quart of rum, and sugar equivalent, on each
vestry day, and as much diet as will give the vestry a dinner at
the parish expense." The sexton was to provide the dinner, at
a cost of 8 shillings, $1.06 each time. Dr. Allen thinks this was
not much rum nor much dinner—but the register entered a large
wide open eye in the margin of the vestry book over against this
account; people probably talked about the way the vestry was
squandering the public funds, and, on January 7, 1752, it was
ordered that each vestryman and warden, in his turn, should provide
a dinner and a quart of rum, at his own expense, " to take
oft' the great scandal and charge the parish has labored under."
It will be noticed that the vestry stuck to their quart of rum even
while abandoning the idea of sweetening the beverage at the public
expense.


Dr. Allen gives a list of the vestrymen of St. Thomas' parish
from 1745 down to 1752, and this list recalls me to what I have
already said about the significance of names as guide-posts in
history. Some of the names in Soldier's Delight—the baptismal
names I mean—are peculiar. Thus the names of Vachel and
Rezin, in the Worthington family. Where such names are not
kept up by the white people, the negroes perpetuate them. Of
the older vestrymen, William Cockey lived in Green Spring
Valley, or opposite it, and the farm is still in the family. John
Hamilton, whose family had a predilection for naming their
females Sidney (it still survives among the Gills), lived on Jones'
Falls. George Ashman lived on Satyr Ridge adjoining Cockey.
Cornelius Howard, father of John Eager, George, Cornelius (who
surveyed half of Baltimore County), &c., lived, as I have indicated,
just west of Gwynn's Falls and the Old Court road, his
property after his marriage to Miss Eager extending to the Spring
Gardens. The name of Urath was and still is a favorite one for
females in the Owings family. The Gists were always odd in
family names—let Mordecai, Independence, States, testify to
the fact.


William Baseman, vestryman in 1746, lived where his descendant
still lives, on the Deer Park road, near North Branch, in
Soldier's Delight. The name of Vachel, in this family, shows
some connection with the Worthingtons. The name of Beale—
the way in which it is spelled in all the old records proves that it
must have been pronounced Bale—is common to the Dorseys,
Worthingtons, Owingses, Randalls, &c. John Pindell, warden in
1751, used to live in Soldier's Delight on a property on the
Lyon's Mill road, adjoining Thomas Worthington's. The place
was afterwards owned by the Maynards and Oweuses. The
Chenoweths lived near the granite quarries at Woodstock, and are
there still. Arthur Chenoweth was vestryman off and on from
1749 to 1760. John Ford, 1749, was a Soldier's Delight man,
and some of the family are there still, near Reisterstown. Capt.
Nicholas Orrick lived in Soldier's Delight, near Waters' campground
; Robert Chapman in Soldier's Delight, near Liberty
Road. John Shelmerdine, 1754, lived near, and Joshua Cockey
at Cockeysville; Thomas Cockey Deye near Texas. The Stevensons
lived in Green Spring Valley, the Johnsons on Chestnut
Ridge. Solomon Bowen, vestryman in 1760, was near Black
Rock. John Griffith, 1761, was in Soldier's Delight, opposite
Pindell; Robert Tevis, 1767, lived near the forks of the Patapsco,
adjoining the Welches. The Tevises intermarried with the

Owiugses. They are Pennsylvanians, but the Maryland branches
have removed to Kentucky and the west. Elias Brown, the great
leader of Baltimore County Democracy, lived in this corner too.
The Carnans dwelt near the Church, aud Capt. Nicholson lived
at Kensey John Worthington's.

The Soldier's Delight people have nearly all gone away long
ago from the Episcopal Church. The rector who succeeded Parson
Cradock, Mr. Edmiston, was a Tory; the 40 per poll tobacco tax
disgusted them, the Methodist revival captivated them, and they
have never come back. St. Thomas' Church gets no members
from Soldier's Delight proper. Mount Paran is Presbyterian,
Mount Nabo aud the White Grounds are Methodist. The Basemans,
Gosnells, &c., go to Ward's chapel, and it was an Owings
Worthington who built Marcella Chapel.

The farmers in these rough hills and barren plains were a
very different class from the slaveholders and tobacco growers
who settled the fertile valleys. They were somewhat rude, independent,
simple-mannered, fond of keeping their own counsel,
plain and old-fashioned in dress. They liked to go to church
and camp-meeting, to talk politics and attend political meetings.

They rode good horses and were fond of fox-hunting. Take
them altogether, they were the most primitive people within fifty
miles of Baltimore.