- Library Overview
- Library User Information
- Collections Overview
- Library Catalog
- Programs & Services
- Research Resources
- Collections Online
- Rights & Reproductions
- Donations and Support
- Featured Collections
- Library News & Updates
- Historical Investigations Portal
- School Programs
- Teacher Resources
- Adult Programs
- Homeschool Programs
- Scouts at MdHS
- Birthdays at The Museum
- Plan a Visit
- Support MdHS
Warden Papers, 1797-1851, MS. 871
GUIDE TO THE MICROFILM EDITION OF THE David Bailie Warden Papers
Maryland Historical Society
Baltimore MD 21201-4674
A MARYLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY MICROFILM PUBLICATION
Sponsored by the National Historical Publication Commission
By Bayly Ellen Marks
This microfilm meets standards established by the NATIONAL HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS COMMISSION General Services Administration and was produced with its assistance
The Documentary Publication Program includes letterpress volumes and microfilm reproductions and is a program designed to help achieve equal opportunities for scholarship.
This pamphlet is intended to serve as a guide for the users of the microfilm edition of the David Bailie Warden Papers as well as those desiring information of its contents prior to acquisition.
The accompanying microfilm meets standards established by the National Historical Publications Commission, General Services Administration, and was produced with the assistance, advisory and financial, of the Commission.
Description of the Collection
The surviving papers of David Bailie Warden (1772-1845) are in two major groups, those at the Maryland Historical Society and a collection deposited at the Library of Congress which consists of twenty-two books of bound letters arranged alphabetically by correspondent, and eleven boxes of loose papers. The Library of Congress collection covers the period 1808 to 1845, and includes scientific and geographical notations, invitations and diplomatic papers, as well as general correspondence. It parallels the Society's collection closely. The Warden papers at the Society cover the period 1797 to 1845, and include incoming correspondence, arranged chronologically, scientific and literary notes whose original order has been lost, a series of four letter books dating from 1811 to 1844, and three registers of incoming letters from 1807 to 1815. Warden himself apparently kept his incoming letters in correspondent files, but only a few of the folders have survived, and it has been impossible to reconstruct the others.
The Society's collections were given in three lots. Two letter books and most of the correspondence were the gift in 1916 and 1919 of Mrs. George R. McGraw (also the donor of the Library of Congress' Warden Papers) from the estate of her father, James Warden, David Bailie Warden's nephew. Her sister, Ella Louise Warden, gave more papers from their father's estate in 1935. The remaining letter books, registers, and the scientific and literary notes also came in 1935 from the Misses Susanna Milliken and Eliza Bailie Warden, the daughters of Hugh Warden, James Warden's brother and also a nephew of David Bailie Warden.
Biographical Sketch of David Bailie Warden
David Bailie Warden, diplomat, scientific writer, scholar, was born in County Down, Ireland, in 1772. Educated for the Presbyterian ministry, he received his Master of Arts from the University of Glasgow in 1797, along with a certificate of midwifery.
Friendships were to prove critical in Warden's life. An intimate of Theobold Wolfe Tone, he cast his lot with the United Irishmen in 1798, and after capture and imprisonment by the English was banished from British territory forever. Emigration to America was an easy decision.
Fluent in French, interested in mathematics, chemistry, and literature, Warden was better qualified as a teacher than a clergyman. In America he quickly abandoned the latter career as principal of Kinderhook Academy in New York. Here he continued his interest in scientific matters by conducting agricultural experiments and recording the local flora and fauna. The fascination with scientific agriculture was lasting, as evidenced by papers on tobacco production in France, and correspondence with agricultural writers such as Jesse Buel, Samuel L. Mitchill, James Mease and Anthony Morris. In 1801 Warden was appointed head tutor at Kingston Academy, and also became the tutor for the children of General John Armstrong.
This association set Warden on the path of diplomatic service, and ultimately effected the abandonment of that career. In 1804, when Armstrong was appointed Minister to France, he took Warden with him to continue instructing his children and also to serve as secretary to the legation. Warden, fluent in French, considered the opportunity limitless, for Paris was the hub of the scientific world. He thus became an American citizen and left New York for Paris in 1804; he returned only once, briefly, to his adopted land.
Armstrong apparently expected a person in the position of secretary and tutor to show proper respect for his modest position in life. But Warden, an ambitious young man, had other ideas. He enrolled in the Ecole de Medicine in pursuit of a medical degree. Following his early interest in chemistry, he became acquainted with many of the leading scientists of the day, including Joseph Gay-Lussac and mineralogist Charles, Baron Coquebert de Montbret. Henceforth until his death in 1845, Warden was to carry on an extensive correspondence, discussing chemistry and medicine with old and dear friends, introducing young doctors to French studies and disseminating scientific and medical knowledge on both sides of the Atlantic. The list of his medical correspondents is extensive, including Drs. Felix Pascalis, James Mease and Richard Harlan of Philadelphia, David Hosack, Samuel L. Mitchill and John W.
Francis of New York, and Irish revolutionary William J. McNeven. Through his interest in medicine, and also in natural history, he began a long correspondence with Thomas Jefferson, whom he admired as a natural philosopher as well as for his republican sentiments. He also communicated with Americans in the fields of education, mathematics and geography.
Warden's diplomatic career was short. The period of Armstrong's ministry was one of tension over the payment of French Spoliation Claims resulting from the quasi-war of 1798-1800, and the conflict between France and England. Armstrong appointed Warden consul in Paris and agent for the prize cases in August, 1808. His predecessor had had difficulties over jurisdiction of prize cases, and these difficulties devolved on Warden. Warden's problems in office were further complicated by a personal conflict with General Armstrong. The two quarreled, and Armstrong replaced Warden in September of 1810. Warden promptly set sail for America to argue his case. Armstrong was recalled and replaced as Minister by Joel Barlow, and Warden returned to France in August, 1811, with a new commission as consul and prize agent in Paris. Barlow died in December, 1812, while returning from a futile visit with Napoleon in Russia, and Warden assumed the position of acting as consul general, and hoped to be appointed Minister in Barlow's place. He maneuvered too quickly to suit others, including Mrs. Barlow, who had hopes for her nephew, and stirred discontent among the other consuls by styling himself consul general. Georgia Senator William H. Crawford was appointed Minister to France in 1813, and when he arrived found Warden and consul William Lee of Bordeaux deep in conflict with one another over the prize case of the ship Maria. Crawford had been Minister only five months when he removed Warden from office, thus ending his diplomatic career. While his friends at home, and American citizens abroad, testified to his worth, Warden never received another diplomatic appointment.
In Paris, without means of employment, Warden turned to his pen. (There is no evidence he ever practiced medicine). He had already published several translations, including that of Bishop Henri Gregory’s De La Literature des Negres... (Paris, 1808), and produced On the origin, nature, progress and influence of consular establishments in 1813. Warden conceived a consul to be a cultural agent, and from 1814 until his death, without the aid of his adopted country, he unofficially acted as just such an agent.
His interest in natural history and his desire for cultural exchange naturally led him into geographical and historical writing. His A chorographical and statistical description of the District of Columbia... (Paris,
1816) and his Statistical, political and historical account of the United States of North America... (Paris, 1820) were well received. Financial success eluded him, however, and in 1820 he sold his library of Americana to Samuel A. Eliot, who presented it to Harvard University. His knowledge of the Americas led him to be asked by several encyclopedias to produce sections on America, and in 1821 he was engaged to write the volumes on the Americas for L'Art de verifier les dates. For this undertaking he again began collecting Americana. The first of his volumes of Lard de verifier les dates was published in 1826; the final volume, number ten, appeared in 1844.
Literary efforts did not preclude time from other pursuits. Warden's friends in the world of literature, education, and politics were numerous: Benjamin Constant, Alexander Vivien, Bishop Henri Gregoire, Baron Alexander von Humboldt, the Marquis de Lafayette, Sir Charles and Lady Morgan. Judging from the numerous notes concerning dinners and soirees, these friends and visiting Americans must have meant a busy schedule. Warden also maintained an active correspondence, and devoted himself to aiding Americans in Europe to further their education.
Warden's health, like his finances, was never very good. There is constant reference to his illnesses in his notes and letters, and a crisis was reached in 1843 when both Warden's health and his bank failed. To alleviate the strain of the bank failure, he negotiated the sale of his second library of Americana to the State of New York. The transaction was completed in 1844, the State of New York retaining the library until its loss in the state capitol fire in 1911. Warden's health did not recover, and on October 9, 1845, he died in Paris of a nervous malady.
Bibliographical Essay on Secondary Sources
There is no published biography of David Bailie Warden. The pamphlet by Francis C. Haber, David Bailie Warden, A Bibliographical Sketch of America's Cultural Ambassador in France, 1804-1845 (Washington: Institute Francais de Washington, 1954), which is reproduced in the accompanying microfilm, has been an invaluable source of information and was the inspiration for this publication. William D. Hoyt, Jr., organized and described the Warden papers at the Maryland Historical Society in The Warden Papers, Maryland Historical Magazine XXXVI (1941), 302-314, and XXXVIII (1943), 69-85. Information on Warden and his American correspondents also has come from the Dictionary of American Biography, the National Cyclopedia of American Biography, the Dielman File at the Maryland Historical Society, the Baltimore City Directories for the period 1810 to 1840, John Thomas Scharf and T. Westcott, History of Philadelphia, 3 vols. (Philadelphia: 1884). The Library of the Academy of Medicine of Brooklyn, the New York Historical Society, the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, and the Medical University of South Carolina have provided additional biographical information.
Microfilm Roll Notes
Unfortunately for descriptive purposes David Bailie Warden's correspondence does not fall easily into chronological periods. With the exception of the material relating to his service as agent for the French Spoliation Claims in Paris, the same correspondents and subjects appear throughout the collection. The majority of his personal papers consist of invitations, intimate notes from friends in Paris, numerous literary notations, and memberships in scientific societies. His foreign letters cover the range of his interests in science and literature, interspersed with letters of introduction for traveling Americans and students in Paris to study medicine and science.
Because there is no break in correspondents between rolls, they are fully identified only when they first appear. Further explanation will concern items of particular interest, and note major disruptions in the flow of letters. Only Warden's major correspondents are identified; the reader is cautioned that the microfilm contains hundreds of notes and letters of introduction, and only those from regular writers are given special notice.
THE DAVID BAILIE WARDEN PAPERS
This pamphlet and the eight accompanying rolls of microfilm are published by the Maryland Historical Society under the sponsorship of the National Historical Publications Commission.
The project was undertaken to provide scholarly access to the papers of David Bailie Warden, diplomat, physician, scientist, historian and collector of Americana. The extensive collection provides an important insight into cultural exchange between France and the United States in the early nineteenth century. This publication includes only that portion of the Warden papers which was given to the Maryland Historical Society; the other part of the collection, held by the Library of Congress, has not been microfilmed.
The author wishes to thank all those who have helped to bring this microfilm edition to completion. The patient understanding, advice and aid offered by Mr. Fred Shelley of the National Historical Publications Commission was greatly appreciated. Mr. P. William Filby, Assistant Director of the Maryland Historical Society, has been an enthusiastic supporter of the project from its inception in 1968, and has sustained it with his interest. Mr. T. Wistar Brown of Rhistoric Publications, Philadelphia, has been most generous with his technical advice. Special appreciation is extended to Dr. Francis C. Haber, whose initial research on David Bailie Warden provided an inspiration, and who has kindly read the manuscript of this pamphlet, as have Dr. and Mrs. John B. Boles, whose suggestions were of great assistance. Finally, an acknowledgment of gratitude must be extended to Mr. David Paulson, who helped prepare the manuscripts for filming and operated the camera. Without his assistance this project could not have been completed.
Roll One begins in 1797 with Warden's degrees from the University of Glasgow, where he studied midwifery and theology. There are no letters from the period of his ministry in Ireland or his participation in the abortive revolt of 1798. Warden moved to the United States in 1799 and settled as a school master in Kinderhook, New York. There he wrote a series of letters to an unidentified friend on life in his adopted country. He moved to Kingston, New York, in 1802 to become head tutor at the Kingston Academy, where he taught until his appointment as secretary to the United States Minister to France, John Armstrong. Between 1803 and 1804 there are letters concerning his appointment as Armstrong's secretary, and his leaving Kingston Academy, as well as a letter from a Dr. Stephenson of Belfast, Ireland.
Diplomatic correspondence for the period 1804 to 1813 falls into three divisions: letters from and concerning relations with Minister John Armstrong, material on Warden's position as agent for the French Spoliation Claims in Paris, and papers collected as consul in Paris after Armstrong's replacement as minister by Joel Barlow in 1811.
John Armstrong (1758-1843) succeeded his brother-in-law Robert Livingston as Minister to France in 1804, and served until 1810. As Armstrong's secretary, David Bailie Warden dealt with routine diplomatic matters. In August, 1808 he was appointed consul and prize agent in Paris. Shortly thereafter a disagreement developed with Armstrong over jurisdiction and propriety in prize cases which led to a quarrel outlined in the New York Evening Post for November 8-11, 1809. This difficulty terminated in Warden's replacement as consul in September, 1810 by Archibald McRae, and Warden's return to the United States where
powerful friends influenced his reappointment as consul and prize agent after Armstrong had been replaced by Joel Barlow.
Papers relating to prize cases begin in 1807 with material from James C. Mountflorence, prize agent and former secretary to Minister Livingston, on various cases of ship seizures, including that of the Nancy in 1807. There are also letters from the American consul to Bordeaux, Isaac Cox Barnet, in 1808 and the French Intendant of Finances, Louis Andre Pichon (1771-1850), on prize cases and claims in 1809-1810. What must originally have been general files on seizures and claims of American shippers include those of the Juno, 1806-1811, the Thomas Wilson, 1807, the Triton, 1810, and the Rose and the Echo, 1811. There is also extensive correspondence on the personal claims of Thomas Waters Griffith in 1807-1808 and Joseph Pitcairn in 1809.
Official letters during Warden's tenure as consul in Paris from 1808 came from Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin (1761-1849), and from Presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. After Warden was dismissed from office by Armstrong in 1810, friends, including Jefferson, were instrumental in his reinstatement. Warden's correspondence with Jefferson was not confined to official material or letters on his reappointment. The two wrote with frequency until 1823; topics in the period to 1813 ranged from the War of 1812 and the American economy to astronomy and horticulture. On the subject of his reappointment, Warden also enlisted the aid of his good friends Mrs. Eliza Parke Custis, granddaughter of Martha Washington, and Washington resident J. R. Fenwick. He was successful in his objectives, and returned to France with the new Minister, Joel Barlow (1754-1812). On the voyage across the Atlantic Warden kept a journal, From Annapolis to Cherbourg on the `Constitution,' August 1 to September 6, 1811.
The routine of office quickly reestablished itself, with notes from Barlow in 1811 and 1812, communications from the Russian Ambassador, Prince Alexandre Kourakin, in 1811-1813; attempts to free imprisoned financier James Swan (1754-1830) in 1811-1814; aid in the personal affairs of New York attorney and merchant John Rodman (1775-1847) during his stay in France prior to 1811; and letters from State Department clerks Daniel Brent (1774-1841) in 1811 and John Graham (1774-1820) in 1811-1814 concerning diplomatic policy and personal purchases to be made in Paris.
When Warden arrived in Paris he began an extensive personal correspondence with Americans whom he had known in New York or had met when they were temporarily resident in Paris. Many of Warden's American friends were physicians, largely from New York and Philadelphia. These included New Yorkers Andrew Morton, John Bullus (1776-1818), who was also Navy Agent in New York, Edward Miller (1760-1812) and David Hosack (1769-1835). Drs. Miller and Hosack were professors at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City. New York was also the residence of two friends from the Irish Rebellion of 1798, Dr. William James McNeven (1763-1841) and William Sampson (1764-1836), both of whom were lifelong correspondents of Warden. There were
also friends in the Kingston area, including Washington Irving (1783-1859), and agriculturalist Jesse Buel (1778-1839), whose letters span the period 1809 to 1837.
Warden became a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1809, and thus made valuable connections in Philadelphia through the Society and through Philadelphians he had met in Paris. These latter included financier Nicholas Biddle (1786-1844), a former secretary to the American legation in Paris, and attorney and future editor Robert Walsh, Jr. (1784-1859) who was in Paris before 1809. Peter S. DuPonceau (1760-1844), French born attorney and author, wrote from Philadelphia in 1810 and 1811. Other Philadelphians were Dr. James Mease (1771-1846), Dr. Robert Patterson (1743-1824) and his son, mathematician Robert M. Patterson (1787-1854). The younger Patterson and Mease corresponded with Warden on medicine, agriculture, chemistry, and geology over the next three decades.
Warden occasionally wrote to two Baltimoreans, the Reverend William Sinclair (d.1830), who was formerly of County Down, Ireland, and the editor of the Baltimore Whig, Baptiste Irvine. Other major American correspondents included General John Mason of Georgetown, whose letters span 1811-1814, Joseph C. Cabell (1778-1856), rector of the University of Virginia who wrote from 1808 to 1838, and Warden's close and dear friend, Mrs. Eliza Parke Custis (1777-1832), granddaughter of Martha Washington, whose numerous epistles began with her uncompleted thirty-one page autobiography in 1808 and continued to her death. Mrs. Custis is of particular interest as she was well known in political circles, and constantly promoted Warden's interest.
Throughout his life Warden was in touch with scientists, historians, philosophers, diplomats, and politicians visiting or resident in Paris. Many of their missives were intimate notes, comments on scientific or historical information, invitations hinting of frequent visits and lasting friendships. Among these letters are those of Americans W. D. Patterson and Dr. Alexander H. Stevens (1789-1869), who studied in Paris from 1812 to 1813. Other friends in Paris were politician and author Henri Gregoire (1750-1831), former Bishop of Blois, whose book on Negro literature Warden translated; Mme. Frances Burney d'Arblay (1752-1840); Alexander Baron von Humboldt (1769-1859); the Marquis de Lafayette (1757-1834); and Auguste de Stal-Holstein (1790-1827). Warden also corresponded with the Scottish historian and geographer, John Pinkerton (1758-1826), Matilda Witherington Tone (1768-1849), widow of Theobold Wolfe Tone; and the French consul to New York, Daniel Lescallier (1743-1822).
The War of 1812 intensified Warden's consular business, as he was the ranking American diplomat in Paris from Barlow's death in December, 1812, until the arrival of the new minister, William H. Crawford (1772-1834), in 1813. Consular material from this period included communications from Duc de Bassano, Henry Jackson, secretary to the American legation, and in 1813 from Commodore John Rogers (1773-1838), commander of an American squadron off
Spain, who wrote from his flagship the President on prizes captured. Warden was calling himself consul general, and his claim was acknowledged by French Intendant of Finances Louis Andre Pichon in 1814, Russian diplomat Alexander Svertchkoff, William Shaler (1773-1833), American consul to Algiers, and Mordecai M. Noah (1785-1851), American consul to Tunis. Letters from the Department of State include one from John Quincy Adams on negotiations to end the war. As consul general, Warden claimed primary jurisdiction over all prize cases in France, and a conflict with consul William Lee at Bordeaux over the case of the Maria led to Warden's dismissal in 1814. The case of the Maria was extended, and may have been the occasion for Warden's collecting considerable material on the Imperial French Court of Prizes and its decisions for the years prior to 1813. The last official missives to Warden as consul are from Minister William Crawford and his secretary, Henry Jackson, concerning the transfer of the records of the consulate. Final reminder of his diplomatic service is a file of official invitations for 1813-1814.
Warden had begun his career as an author in America, but his first major work was a study of the consular establishments in Western Europe. On the origin, nature, progress and influence of consular establishments appeared in Paris in 1813, and judging from the congratulatory messages the book was well received. There is also a manuscript paper, written in 1813, on the production of tobacco in France. Warden envisioned the ideal consul as a cultural agent, and after 1814 pursued this role while earning a living with his pen. Among his Paris contacts was a widening circle of resident Americans, Englishmen, and Parisian scientists and writers. Gregoire, Humboldt, and Lafayette continued as good friends. By the time that Warden left the diplomatic service he was well known, and sought out by such visiting Americans as John Howard Payne (1791-1852) in 1815. Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte (1785-1879), wife of Napoleon's brother Jerome, visited with Warden on her many trips to Paris and kept him informed of her travels. Letters of introduction came for many, including Thomas H. Gallaudet and Theodore Lyman; in the next decades Orestes Brownson, John Jacob Astor, J. Fisher Ames, General Winfield Scott, Charles Sumner, Noah Webster, Jared Sparks and James Fenimore Cooper would write to introduce a friend or American student and commend him to Warden's guidance.
Warden increased his stature as a writer with two more books, A chorographical and statistical description of the District of Columbia (1816) and A statistical, political and historical account of the United States of North America, published in 1819. His circle of friends in the scientific and literary worlds was enlarged to include Irish novelist Sidney Morgan (1783-1859), and her physician husband Sir Charles Morgan (1783-1843), John H. Stone (1763-1818) and his wife, novelist Helena Maria Williams (1762-1827), and Le Roy de Chaumont. As a scientific and historical writer Warden was in contact with editor Macvey Napier (1776-1847) of the Edinburgh Review in 1815, mathematician John Leslie of Edinburgh (1766-1832), Scottish historian and geographer John Pinkerton, and Lochart Muirhead of Glasgow. Contacts with Ireland were renewed in 1814 via William Henry Curran, son on jurist John Curran and his father's biographer.
Joseph Priestley (1768-1833), son of the famous chemist, wrote Warden from London between 1813 and 1821.
Developing the role of cultural agent, Warden expanded his American correspondence. Thomas Jefferson continued to write on a variety of topics until 1823, including bibliography, French culture, American industry, politics, international relations, the problems of the admission of Missouri in 1820, and the revolutions in South America. Warden had been advised by his old friend Joseph C. Cabell to settle in New York, as it was becoming the center of American science and literature, and because of Warden's many contacts there. He had been in frequent communication with William Sampson, Dr. William James McNeven, Dr. Alexander H. Stevens, and the French consul to New York, Daniel Lescallier. Attorney John Rodman, who returned from France about 1811, wrote until 1816 on books and publishing M. C. Paterson began writing Warden in 1816, and merchant John Chambers corresponded steadily from 1814 to 1827.
Letters from Robert M. Patterson and the Reverend George C. Potts (d.1838), pastor of the Fourth Presbyterian Church, kept Warden informed on activities in Philadelphia. Eliza Parke Custis continued her long and intimate epistles, and in 1816 wrote President Madison attempting to have Warden reappointed consul. Contacts with General John Mason of Georgetown and editor Baptiste Irvine continued briefly. Gilbert L. Meason of Georgetown corresponded from 1817 to 1831. In 1816 Thomas Jefferson introduced future educator and author George Ticknor (1791-1871) of Boston, who was a student in, Hanover in 1816 and 1817, and who returned to Harvard as Professor of Belles-lettres in 1819. Through diplomatic channels Warden became acquainted with Joel R. Poinsett, and began to cultivate an interest in Latin American politics and history.
Warden's diplomatic contacts were maintained in Paris as well as in the United States. His Paris contacts included Albert Gallatin, Minister to France from 1816 to 1823, and his successor, James Brown (1766-1835), who settled permanently in France in 1829, and whose letters to Warden cover the period 1828 to 1832. Other Americans in Paris were James C. Mountflorence, who wrote in 1819, James Henry Lawrence (1773-1840), who visited in 1818 and 1819, and P. C. Grattan, who contacted Warden in 1821. The Parisian circle of Mme. drably, Bishop Gregorian, Baron von Humboldt, and Marquis de Lafayette was widened with the inclusion of physician and mineralogist Charles, Baron Courbet de Montbret (1755-1831), H. D. de Montmorency-Morres, W. B. Laurence, economist Jean Baptiste Say (1767-1832), writer and politician Benjamin Constant (1767-1830), and attorney and politician Alexandre Vivien (1799-1854). Many were intimates of Warden and their visits are recorded in his existing diaries at the Library of Congress.
As Warden's fame as a writer and scholar grew, he came to have a wide correspondence
with persons in England, Scotland, and Ireland. These included Richard MacDonnell (d.1867) of Dublin, Amelia Curran, daughter of Irish jurist John Curran, and Dr. A. Stephenson of Belfast. Warden became involved in the estate of an American citizen, Patrick Corran, who died in Ireland in 1817, and material on his role in that estate can be found in 1818 and in 1836. John Howard Payne, a friend of Washington Irving, who studied in Paris between 1821 and 1823, began a series of letters from London which continued through 1839. Also in London was Eliza H. M. Godefroy (1780-1839), wife of architect Maximilian Godefroy, who began writing to Warden in 1820.
With the 1820 publication of A statistical, political, and historical account of the United States of North America, invitations from literary and scientific societies increased. A member of the American Philosophical Society and the Institut de France, Warden was invited to join the Royal Norse Antiquarian Society, many agricultural societies, and in 1820 the Imperiale e Reale Accademia Economico-Agraria die georgorfili de Firenze, the constitution of which he retained among his papers. In 1821 his literary career was capped when he was asked to write the volumes on North and South America for L'Art de verifier les dates. Warden's contribution extended to 10 volumes, the last published in 1844.
A large portion of Warden's correspondence consisted of letters of recommendation for Americans studying in Paris. Physician John D. Fisher of Boston (1797-1850) had studied in Paris in 1825-1827, and continued writing from 1828 to 1831 after he had returned home. Many others persisted writing after they had returned to the United States, as can be seen in letters from clergyman Samuel Farmar Jarvis (1786-1851), who returned from Europe in 1827; and engineer Moncure Robinson (1802-1891), who studied in Paris to 1828 and who was in contact with Warden from 1827 until 1844. Harvard professor George Ticknor renewed his friendship with Warden in 1828 and 1829. Others who had been in Paris included Colonel Sylvanus Thayer (1785-1872), Superintendent of West Point, who had been in Europe in 1817, and introduced friends to Warden in 1826; and New York author and congressman Gulian C. Verplanck (1786-1870), who studied in Europe until 1817. Brother-in-law of attorney John Rodman, he wrote Warden in 1824 and again in 1835. Also a student in Paris, New Yorker N. H. Carter kept Warden informed of his activities in 1826 and 1827.
Contacts increased as friends introduced their students and younger colleagues. Washington Irving introduced Thomas W. Storrow in the 1820's; Dr. David Hosack's student and colleague, Dr. John W. Francis (1789-1861), began writing in 1824 and continued until 1838. Correspondence with physicians William James McNeven, Felix Pascalis, and Samuel L. Mitchill continued, as did the letters of M. C. Paterson, John Chambers, and William Sampson, the latter writing from Washington, D. C. from 1824 to 1829, where he was an attorney practicing before the Supreme Court. Business contacts with John White and Company, bankers, began in 1827 and continued until 1831; they were Warden's financial agents until their bankruptcy in 1843. Other New Yorkers introduced to Warden in the 1820's included Dr. John Campbell White in 1826, Dr. John Slidell in 1825, and General Solomon Van Rensselaer (1774-1852), postmaster of Albany, in 1828.
Philadelphians James Mease, Robert M. Patterson, and Peter S. DuPonceau continued writing, as did Virginian Joseph C. Cabell, Gilbert L. Meason of Georgetown, and South Carolinian Joel R. Poinsett, a member of the House of Representatives from 1821 to 1825.
Madame Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte was in Europe during most of the 1820's, and her notes from 1818 to 1826 centered around gossip, servants, and dinner parties. Scottish author Frances Wright (1795-1852), a friend of Lafayette, visited in Paris in 1821 and 1823. Several old acquaintances were briefly renewed in the 1820's, including that with William Theobold Wolfe Tone, (1791-1828), son of Irish revolutionary Wolfe Tone, who had been educated in France but moved to the United States. Dr. William Sinclair wrote from Centreville, Maryland in 1822, and former charge d'affaires in Madrid, Anthony Morris (1766-1860), now Director of the Bank of North America and resident of Georgetown, from 1825 to 1835 sent letters on financial matters. Brief contacts were also made with Dr. Campbell P. White of Baltimore in 1821 and William Taylor of Boston from 1822 to 1824.
During the decade of the 1830's Warden was involved in L'Art de Verifier les dates, particularly the Latin American volumes. The observations of Joel R. Poinsett, Baron von Humboldt, and the consul to Havana, William Shaler, must have been particularly helpful. The dated Humboldt letters end in 1835, and are followed in Roll V by a series of twenty-seven undated notes. Poinsett's friendship may have introduced Warden to Hugh S. Legare and Dr. Francis Wurdemann (1810-1849) of Charleston. The latter was interested in Indian languages, and sent several letters on the subject in 1834 and 1836. He may also have been the source of information on Indians collected by Warden and filmed in Roll VIII. Hugh Legate (1797-1843), charge d'affaires in Belgium from 1832 to 1836, was primarily interested in chemistry, and some of his letters to Warden refer to this interest. Legare continued to correspond in 1838 after he had returned to the United States and had been elected a member of Congress.
Letters and notes from Parisians and resident or visiting Americans continued. Lafayette wrote until 1833 (several undated Lafayette items are filmed in Roll V). Eliza and Maximilian Godefroy had moved to Paris in 1822, and Eliza wrote Warden several long letters in 1830 and 1831. Notes from Alexandre Vivien continue until 1838, while Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte's missives can be found only in 1833 and 1838. Americans Leonard Cassell McPhail and Dr. I. P. C. MacMahon were in Paris in the early 1830's. Dr. MacMahon continued writing when, as an army doctor, he was transferred in 1832 first to Washington, D. C. and then to Missouri, but McPhail's letters stop in 1833. Dr. Isaiah Townsend, Jr. (1813-1859) was introduced to Warden when traveling in Europe in 1831 and 1832, and the friendship was continued after he returned to Albany. Notes from former American Minister to France James Brown appear in 1831 and 1832, after he had settled in Paris. Other diplomatic or former diplomatic contacts
included Daniel Brent, consul and agent for American Claims in 1837 and 1838, and John Carroll Brent (1797-1845), who was American consul from 1839. Warden's continued interest in a diplomatic post is evident in an undated petition that he be appointed consul, signed by Americans living in Paris, and probably addressed to President Jackson or Van Buren. For purposes of this publication the petition has been placed at the end of the year 1839. Warden was also in contact with Henri Wheaton (1785-1848), minister plenipotenary to Prussia, who wrote from Berlin from 1837 to 1843.
Most of Warden's correspondents in the British Isles were well known; John Howard Payne in London and Dr. Stephenson in Belfast, whose letters appear from 1839 to 1844. Richard Biddle (1796-1847), brother of Nicholas Biddle, wrote from London in 1831 and 1832, and Obadiah Rich (1783-1850), consul at Port Mahon, began a correspondence on bibliographical matters in 1838 which continued until 1843. Letters from New Yorkers John C. White and Gulian C. Verplanck appear in 1831 and 1835 respectively, while those of Drs. McNeven and Francis continue through 1835 and 1838. Dr. David Hosack's correspondence terminated with his death in 1835; his son Alexander (1804-1871), who studied in Paris from 1825 to 1827, wrote Warden in 1831. Other Americans who appear among Warden's papers of the 1830's include Dr. James A. Washington of New York from 1834 to 1837, Postmaster Solomon Van Rensselaer of Albany in 1835 and 1838, editor Jesse Buel in 1831, 1836, and 1837, Dr. John D. Fisher in 1831, and Harvard professor George Ticknor in 1831 and 1835. Warden began communicating with Harvard professor and historian Jared Sparks (1789-1866) in 1830. Other Bostonians writing in the 1830's included Dr. Charles T. Jackson (1805-1880), who studied chemistry and medicine in Paris from 1829 to 1832, and Charles Sumner (1811-1874), who was in Paris in the early 1830's and began corresponding upon returning home in 1836.
Peter S. DuPonceau wrote from Philadelphia from 1831 to 1835, while fellow Philadelphian Robert M. Patterson's letters came from Charlottesville, Virginia, from 1831 through 1835 while he held the chair in Natural Sciences at the University of Virginia. He returned to Philadelphia in 1836 to become Director of the United States Mint. Nicholas Biddle renewed his correspondence with Warden in 1836, and Robert Walsh, Jr., in 1837, prior to his settling in Paris. Dr. James Mease's letters terminate in 1835. Many Philadelphians in Warden's acquaintance were connected with the natural sciences: George Ord (1781-1866), who completed his friend Alexander Wilson's American Ornithology, wrote in 1831 and 1838; Alexander Dallas Bache (1806-1867), physicist and professor of natural philosophy and chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, communicated with Warden from 1832 to 1840. Other Philadelphians introduced in the 1830's were engineer Thomas G. Clemson (1807-1888), who had been in Paris studying under Gay-Lussac from 1826 to 1832, and whose letters span 1835 to 1839; physician Richard Harlan (1796-1843), who began writing from Philadelphia in 1836 and continued while traveling in Europe in 1838; and Dr. C. Wistar Pennock (1799-1867), who wrote Warden from 1835 to 1837.
Letters also came from Moncure Robinson in Philadelphia, Joseph C. Cabell
in Richmond, from 1833 to 1838, and Anthony Morris of Georgetown in 1830 and 1835. Dr. Campbell P. White wrote in 1830 and 1833, the latter letters coming from the New York House of Representatives. New correspondents were Dr. Robert H. Cabell in Richmond from 1830 to 1839 and Alban G. Smith of Louisville, Kentucky, who contacted Warden in 1831 and again in 1837 and 1839.
1840-1851, Alphabetical List
Warden's correspondence tapers off during the last five years of his life, and centers around old friends in Paris and the United States. Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte, Joel R. Poinsett, Robert M. Patterson, Peter S. DuPonceau, J. R. Fenwick, and Jared Sparks sent information on their varied activities. In 1841 C. F. Winslow of Nantucket was introduced, and the following year Dr. John G. Adams (1807-1884) of New York, former student of Dr. Alexander H. Stevens, began a series of letters to Warden. Moncure Robinson, George Ord, Dr. Charles Jackson, Dr. James A. Washington, and Robert Walsh, Jr., the latter a resident of Paris since 1837, were in contact with Warden until his death in 1845. During the last decade of his life, his most constant correspondent was Dr. Isaiah Townsend, Jr. of Albany, New York. They shared an interest in science and agriculture and discussed inventions and literature. Townsend ordered varied items from France, including French silver which he sketched for Warden in 1844. He was also concerned over the sale of Warden's library to the state of New York in 1843. Townsend must have had an interest in Warden's estate, for his letters are found in the collection from 1848 to 1851.
Roll V concludes with an alphabetical list of undated letters. Most are invitations and notes from residents of Paris and were probably delivered by hand. The major subjects are dinners, soirees, and excursions. There are numerous notes from Sir Charles and Lady Morgan, the Marquis de Lafayette, and Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte when she was in Paris. Of greater importance are communications from Bishop Gregoire, Baron von Humboldt, and American consul to Algiers, Henry Lee (1787-1837, he died in Paris), but since they were mostly hand delivered they are difficult to date. A typed list of contents precedes the alphabetical series.
Warden's personal letterbooks, kept from 1811 until 1844, are in an unbroken series. Letterbook A begins in October, 1811, and ends in September, 1813. It is indexed by name of addressee, and includes outgoing personal and diplomatic correspondence. In addition, it lists the arrivals and departures of American vessels in France in 1813. A large portion of the diplomatic communications were related to Warden's position as agent for American claims, with many addressed to French official Louis Andre Pichon. There are also a large number of letters
to the Duc de Bassano. As Warden's difficulties in office increased in 1813, he began keeping a register of incoming diplomatic correspondence, as well as notes on activities which were to surround his departure from office in 1814.
Letterbook B, from September, 1813 through 1824, is indexed, and contains lists of incoming official documents, and personal and diplomatic letters from Warden. Much of the correspondence in 1813 and 1814 was to the American consul at Tunis, Mordecai M. Noah. After 1814 additions to the letterbook were predominantly personal, and included lists of books ordered and received, as well as lists of those to whom Warden sent complimentary copies of his own books. The beginning leaves of this letterbook contain several family genealogical notes.
Letterbook C begins in February, 1824, and continues until 1835. Also indexed, it contains only personal communications, and lists of those who received complimentary copies of Warden's books, as well as copies of his catalogue of Americana.
Indexed letters and book lists from 1836 to 1844 can be found in Letterbook D. It also contains copies of letters referring to Warden's diplomatic service from 1810 to 1814, particularly those relative to his problems with American Ministers Armstrong and Crawford. (These items begin on page 82.)
Registers, 1807-1813, Miscellaneous Memoranda
Warden kept several files of invitations and personal notes. Those which he sewed together have been filmed in the chronological correspondence. Some, however, were mounted in a scrapbook. Covering the years 1826 to 1828, they were mainly congratulations on various publications.
Warden's register of letters began in September 1807 with Register A, which continues through September, 1810. An indexed volume, it includes copies of most incoming and some outgoing diplomatic documents. Register B continues the same format from September, 1811, until March, 1815. Register C does not follow its predecessors. It begins with June, 1810, and continues to September, 1810, with incoming diplomatic letters. Prize cases from December, 1808, to November, 1809, are then recorded, and incoming and some outgoing diplomatic mail begins again with September, 1811, continues to 1813, and then returns to the period 1809 to 1810. Portions of the intervening sections are blank, although nothing appears to be missing.
As an historical and scientific writer Warden collected a large number of notes. Because he viewed his role as a writer and a compiler of research and past information, most of his notes are references to published works, often taken on scraps of paper as he came across items of interest in his readings. Added to these are rough bibliographies, and extracts from works which he thought would be useful. Approximately half of Warden's existing memoranda are in the material held by the Maryland Historical Society, the remainder are in the collection of the Library of Congress. In the years after Warden's death, these papers were
passed to the children of his brothers, and much of the original order has been lost. In some instances that order can be partially reconstructed by matching paper, type, and subject, but this reconstruction is tentative at best. That portion of Warden's notes in Roll VII has been reassembled in order of creation. While they seem to have a direct relationship to Warden's books and articles, the reader is cautioned that the assignment is the editor's.
The section of Warden's notes and miscellaneous memoranda begins with a volume of arithmatic problems, in contemporary binding, and marked as being from Kingston Academy, thus dating from 1801 thru 1804. The next datable item is a Relation of an aerostatic voyage by Mr. Gay-Lussac from Warden's early years in Paris.
Warden began early to collect works relating to commercial law and interchanges between western European nations for On the origin, nature, progress and influence of consular establishments. Probably the next series of items, a bibliography of books on commerce, a series of notes titled England and dealing with British interpretation of maritime law, and a series of notes on French commercial law, are associated with this book.
A statistical, political, and historical account of the United States of North America, published in 1819 and 1820, was Warden's next major work. For this he prepared and published a prospectus in 1817, and kept a scrapbook of reviews and comments on it. The loosely arranged series of notes on the United States, particularly its history and current statistics, was presumably gathered in the course of his research. In some cases individual pages can be matched, but for the most part the original order has been lost.
In 1822 Warden was asked to complete L'Art de verifier les dates with volumes on North and South America, and some of the following items may have been collected for that work, particularly the bound extracts from the Register of officers and agents... 1819, which included a list of patents registered in the United States, a stitched bibliography titled Amerique meridionale, and a bound list of books on the West Indies. Material collected in the 1820's included what may be a review of William Henry Curran's biography of his father, titled Life of the Right Honorable John Philip Curran, a list of the publications of Warden's friend, Dr. James Mease of Philadelphia, and a few pages entitled Holland, presumably notes for Sur la Nouvelle Hollande, published in the Bulletin of the Societe de geographie de Paris in 1825.
Throughout the 1820's and 1830's, while Warden was engaged in writing the American volumes for L'Art de verifier les dates, he was also using material researched for that work in articles, pamphlets, and bibliographies. His manuscript notes on the ruins at Palenquein Guatemala were published as Description des ruines de couvertes pregraves de Palenque Societe de geographie de Paris, Recueil de voyages et de memoires, II.
Most of the following items in this roll were probably researched for the various volumes of L'Art de verifier les dates, but as with much of his material, the original relationship has been lost. They include notes on Humboldt's voyages to Latin America, on the route from Nacogdoches to Vera Cruz via Mexico City, material on the Indian population of the Americas, and a printed copy of the Aztec calendar. Items relating to North America include considerable manuscript and newspaper extracts on the American Indian, notes on colonial produce, a series of memos, many of them literally on scraps of paper, on the West Indies, particularly on the slave population. Warden was particularly interested in voyages of discovery and in geographical information. That relating to North America was kept in a contemporary loose binder entitled Notes on the voyages to the North Pole and the North West coast. Requiring 100 frames of microfilm, they range from a series of numbered pages, to scraps pinned or tied together, to individual scraps, and in many cases the order cannot be reconstructed. Among these are notes in a paper folder labeled California. Warden also collected a considerable library of Americana. Circumstances eventually forced him to sell this collection to the State of New York in 1843. It may be this second collection of Americana which is described in two bound folders entitled Books relating to the United States.
The Warden collection contains a considerable volume of material which is not directly related to Warden's published works. Many of these items are in individual contemporary folders and are self explanatory. They include extracts from Alexander Wilson's American Ornithology, or the Natural History of the Birds of the United States...which was originally published in Philadelphia in nine volumes from 1808 to 1814. Notes on Ireland and on Russia, a manuscript volume of Technical Words in Different Languages Prepared For my own use, and several pages entitled Vocabulaire Miami are among miscellaneous items collected in the course of thirty years. Medical notes included symptoms of Spotted Fever and a treatise on opium. There is also a description of the Parasol Ant, a Latin bibliography which may date from the period of his teaching in Kingston, New York, and a collection of disordered memos, which could not be related to each other or to the bulk of the collection. Roll VIII concludes with a chronological list of publications written or translated by David Bailie Warden.
The David Bailie Warden Papers, in eight rolls, are filmed in format II B. All items in the collection have been filmed, with the exception of correspondence file folders on which Warden had inscribed only the name of the writer.
The papers have been filmed in chronological order. Enclosures are filmed immediately after the item in which they have been enclosed. Deviations from chronological order have been noted in appropriate targets. Items which are dated by month and year only have been filmed at the end of the month, those dated by year only have been filmed at the end of the year. Items which, from internal evidence, can only be dated by decade have been placed at the end of the last year of the decade. Undated correspondence of persons known to be in a particular location for a restricted period of time has been placed under the last possible date a letter could have been written from that location. In the cases of Warden's Paris correspondents, undated items have been placed in the year of their death. There is an alphabetical series of undated letters at the end of Roll V, preceded by a typed list of authors. Rolls VII and VIII, in which Warden's literary notes are found, are filmed in the approximate order the documents were created. The reader is advised to use undated items, and items which have been placed, undated, within a year series, with some caution. While some undated items can be dated by internal evidence or through notations in diaries and letterbooks with relative ease, it has not been possible in the preparation of these papers to provide definitive date assignments for all such items.
1840-1851 AND UNDATED MANUSCRIPTS
LETTERBOOKS, 1811 to 1844
REGISTERS, 1807-1813, AND MISCELLANEOUS MEMORANDA
MISCELLANEOUS MEMORANDA, AND CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF PUBLICATIONS WRITTEN OR TRANSLATED BY WARDEN
Publication and Microfilm Copying Restrictions
The permission of the Maryland Historical Society must be obtained in writing before any manuscripts from its collections can be published.
The user is further cautioned that unauthorized publication of manuscripts may be construed as a violation of literary property rights. Those rights derive from the common law principle that the author of an unpublished letter or other manuscript has the sole right to publish the contents thereof; unless he affirmatively parts with that right, the right descends to his legal heirs regardless of the ownership of the physical manuscript. It is the responsibility of the author or his publisher to secure permission to publish from the owner of literary rights.
Roll duplication of the whole or any part of this film is prohibited. In lieu of transcription, however, enlarged photocopies of selected items contained on these rolls may be made to facilitate research.
Inquiries regarding permission to publish manuscripts from this collection should be addressed to the Curator of Manuscripts, Maryland Historical Society, 201 West Monument Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201.