Maryland State Colonization Society Papers, 1827-1871, MS 571

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Descriptive Summary

Maryland State Colonization Society Papers, 1827-1871

MS 571

Maryland Historical Society

Baltimore MD 21201-4674

 


THE PAPERS OF THE MARYLAND STATE
COLONIZATION SOCIETY.

WILLIAM D. HOYT, JR.

The Johns Hopkins University

At a meeting of the Maryland Historical Society on March 9th, 1885, John H. B. Latrobe, its President, read a paper entitled Maryland in Liberia, based on a collection of documents in the custody of the Society. The Preface to the printed copy of Mr. Latrobe's paper (Fund-Publication, No. 21, Baltimore, 1885) set forth the history of these documents as follows: When the Maryland State Colonization Society closed its active operations in 1863, Dr. James Hall, who had been its agent and business manager, and the editor of the Maryland Colonization Journal, arranged carefully all the books and papers of the Society and placed them in the custody of the Maryland Historical Society.

Maryland Historical Magazine. Vol. 32, September, 1937

As a matter of fact, however, it was not until fourteen years after the date mentioned by Mr. Latrobe that the papers of the Maryland Colonization Society were delivered to the Historical Society. On October 9th, 1876, the Rev. Dr. E. A. Dalrymple read a letter from Dr. James Hall, expressing a wish to deposit

with the Historical Society the `Archives of the Colonization Society,' and, upon motion duly made and seconded, it was voted to refer the matter to the President and the Librarian with power to act. Four months later, on February 12th, 1877, a letter from Dr. Hall to Mr. Latrobe was read, notifying Mr. Latrobe that Dr. Hall had sent to Mr. Gatchell, Assistant Librarian, an inventory of the `Archives' sent to the Historical Society for safe-keeping. This inventory, dated January 22nd, 1877, listed 23 items In Manuscript and 12 items of Printed Matter, and was accompanied by a letter thanking Mr. Gatchell for the kind assistance afforded in arranging this matter of transfer and deposit of the Archives of one public institution to the custody of another.

Mr. Latrobe himself, in the Preface mentioned above, remarked that: The material has not by any means been exhausted. Indeed, this should be regarded as a considerable understatement of the situation, for the papers of the Maryland State Colonization Society are so voluminous and cover so many phases of the work of the Society in both America and Liberia that it would be impossible to exhaust them in a number of essays similar to Mr. Latrobe's. Over fifty years have passed since Mr. Latrobe addressed the Historical Society, and no further attempts have been made to use the material gathered so carefully by Dr. Hall and deposited with the Historical Society. It might be of interest, therefore, to give some account of the large collection still reposing in the original cabinet and untouched for many years until February 1937. For purposes of convenience to students and others, the papers have been classified arbitrarily under certain headings according to their subject matter.

 


Container List

Reel #1  

I. Minutes         (Box 1 and 2)                                                                                      

A. Records of the Meetings of the Board of Managers, Feb. 1831-Nov. 1902

            The Records provide a full history of the administration of the Maryland State Colonization Society and are an excellent source of information on the colony in Liberia.

Volume I contains the organization records of the Colonization Society, and includes an interesting report by Dr. Ayres, agent of the group, on his trip to the various counties of the state to form branch societies.

Volume 2 has a copy of the Ordinance for the government of Maryland in Liberia, showing the administrative set-up there; and has a copy of the deed for the land in Africa, giving the price paid in terms of muskets, kegs of powder, cloth, kettles, hats, beads, iron pots, looking glasses, knives, jugs, pitchers, bowls, fish hooks; scissors, etc.

Volume 3 has the Third Annual Report of the Board of Managers, giving an interesting detailed account of the first settlement at Cape Palmas. It reflects the steps taken to raise funds, even to the extent that each member of the Board sold a certain number of Oratorio tickets for the benefit of the colonization project. Numerous other reports throw light on the early history of the movement and the colony.

Volume 4 includes the Seventh Annual Report, which discusses fully the social and economic problems at Cape Palmas, as do all succeeding reports. A circular distributed among the people of Baltimore in 1841 seems to indicate that some colonization business was transacted at saloons. This book concludes with the Ordinance providing for the maintenance of `Public Worship' in Liberia.

Volume 5, like all the minute books, has a vast amount of correspondence relating to colonial affairs, reports, instructions, etc., not included in the regular letter books. There is also a copy of the articles of agreement between the Colonization Society and the people of Maryland in Liberia in 1854, when self-government became an actuality. The report of the Managers on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Society reviews past history and congratulates the members on the success of their efforts, rejoicing particularly that the territory at Cape Palmas was purchased without giving the natives presents of Ardent Spirits.

Volume 6 covers the period after the active work of the Society ceased, and shows the gradual decline of enthusiasm, the less frequent meetings, and the slow disintegration of the organization. The final records deal with the disposition of small sums in the treasury.

 

B. Proceedings of the Executive Committee, Mar. 1831- May 1834 (Box 2)

The Proceedings are very brief and supply only the barest outline of what was done. Volume 1 includes some financial accounts. Volume 2 duplicates the record during 1833.

 

II. Correspondence Received

            The twenty-eight volumes of Letter Books are an exceedingly large and valuable collection of source materials. They include every letter received by the Colonization Society from home and abroad, filed in chronological order of writing. These letters deal with a vast array of subjects, and include countless communications from Liberia, official and personal. Correspondence from all parts of Maryland and from distant regions of the United States indicates the wide sweep of the Society's activities. The first nineteen volumes are bound uniformly in brown leather; the rest are pasted in the black files customary at the time, are less well preserved, and are more difficult to consult. The entire collection, except the first volume, is indexed either by date or by the name of the writer.

A. Letter Books, May 1827 - July 1833  (Box 3)

Reel #2

Letter Books, August 1833 - December 1836  (Box 3 and 4)              

Reel #3                       

Letter Books, January 1837 – October 6, 1838  (Box 4 and 5)            

Reel #4

Letter Books, October 9, 1838 -  October 5, 1843  (Box 5 and 6)

Reel #5

Letter Books, October 5, 1843 – March 1849  (Box 6 and 7)

Reel #6

Letter Books, June 1849 – February 1856  (Boxes 7-9)

Reel #7

Letter Books, March 1856 – December 1860  (Boxes 9-11)

Reel #8

Letter Books, January 1861 – December 1867  (Box 11 and 12)

Reel #9

Letter Books, January 1868 – September 1872   (Boxes 12-14)          

B. Letter Books, Shipping, April 1857 – October 15, 1857  (Box 15)

            The Letter Books, Shipping are the only parts of the correspondence received which deal with a special subject and are set aside by themselves. The papers in them are shorter than those in the general letter files, they are all from American sources, and they deal entirely with business matters. They are pasted in the usual files, and are indexed by names. The Bills of Lading show the quantities and prices of goods shipped to Africa. They include an interesting array of receipts on the forms of many old firms: Adams Express Company, Cromwells New York and Baltimore Steamship Line, New York and Baltimore Transportation Line, American Express Company, Baltimore and Philadelphia Steamboat Company, Powhatan Steamboat Company, Merchants and Miners Transportation Company, United States Express Company, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Harnden's Express, Harrisburg Transportation Line, etc.

Reel # 10

Letter Books, Shipping, October 1857 – September 10, 1860 (Boxes 15-17_

Reel # 11

Letter Books, Shipping, September 19, 1860 – November 1865  (Boxes 17-19)

Bills of Lading, 1856 – 1860

C. Letter Books, Foreign, January 1834 – June 1834  (Box 20)

The Foreign Letter Books contain copies of letters received from Liberia, and consist chiefly of official reports. They discuss all the problems of the colonial settlement, and present this material in paragraphs headed by the subject titles of the matter related therein.

Reel # 12

Letter Books, Foreign, August 1834 – June 1843 (Box 20)

III. Correspondence Sent

A. Letter Books, Press, June 1854 – Oct. 13, 1856  (Box 21)

 The Letter Press Books are impressions of a large number of letters sent out by the Colonization Society, many of them written by Dr. James Hall. Each volume has nearly five hundred pages, and most of the letters are very legible. They are indexed under the names of the persons addressed. They touch on all phases of the Society's activities, but particularly interesting are the papers written at the time of the establishment of the Republic of Liberia in 1857. Volume 4 is concerned largely with Dr. Hall's letters written during his trip to Africa in 1860-61. The journey may be traced through its various stages: preparation, sea voyage, visit to Monrovia, trip down the coast with stops at Mesurado, off Bassa, at Cape Palmas, etc., at sea again, in the Chesapeake, and home. The latter portion of the book covers Dr. Hall's next trip to London-derry in Ireland, Newport in England, and back again. Many of the letters in this volume are badly faded.

Reel #13

Letter Books, Press, Oct. 13 , 1856 – July 8, 1861  (Box 21-23)

Reel #14

Letter Books, Press, July 1861 – Sept. 1866 (Box 22 and 23)

B. Letter Books, Press – Shipping, Apr. 1857 – Apr. 1860

The Letter Press Books, Shipping correspond among the letters sent to the Letter Books, Shipping among the letters received. Each volume contains nearly five hundred pages of correspondence dealing with goods sent to Africa, and the actual lists with prices are included in some cases. Volume 6, for instance, has on pages 404-07 an inventory of the ship `Golconda,' listing all its equipment and supplies. A few other matters appear intermittently, and the entire collection reflects Dr. Hall's delightful charm of style. These letters, like those of the regular Letter Press Books, are indexed by the persons addressed.

Reel #15

Letter Books, Press – Shipping, Apr. 1860 – Apr. 6, 1867

Reel #16

Letter Books, Press – Shipping, Apr. 6, 1867 – January 1870

C. Books, Corresponding Secretary’s, Oct. 1832 – Apr. 1840

One of these volumes is labelled: Letter Book, containing Copies of all Letters addressed by the Corresponding Secretary to different persons on business of the Society. This adequately reveals the nature of this class of the letter books. They include directions, suggestions, and reports on activities. Only Volume 1 is indexed.

D. Letter Book, Latrobe Letter Book, July 1836- Jan. 1840

These volumes contain a similar set of letters, all of them written by John H. B. Latrobe, who served as the Colonization Society's first Corresponding Secretary and became President in March 1837. Volume 1 consists largely of letters to Dr. Hall while the latter was Governor of Maryland in Liberia.

Reel#17

 

Letter Book, Latrobe Letter Book, Feb. 1840 – Nov. 1852

E. Book, State Manager’s, Apr. 1832 – Dec. 1862

The State Managers' Book contains local correspondence, most of it written for the Board of Managers by Charles Howard, with the usual index. Noted almost at random is an interesting letter addressed in April 1832 to the President of Hayti, asking if there was a place for colored people in that island.

F. Books, Agent’s, Jan. 1834 – Oct. 1848

The Agents' Books are copies of letters sent by the Rev. William McKenney, the Rev. Ira Easter, and Dr. James Hall while serving as agents of the Colonization Society. They show the activities of the Society in Maryland, particularly in regard to the colored people going to Africa. Included are the instructions to the captains of the ships taking the emigrants over the ocean and to the colonial officials in the settlement at Cape Palmas. Volume 3 has in the front copies of letters from the mercantile house of J. R. Gordon and Company to its clients, April-December 1842, apparently not concerned at all with colonization affairs.

IV. Miscellaneous Letters and Minutes

A. Original letter, fifty-eight pages in length, from Robert Goodloc Harper to Charles B. Caldwell, Secretary of the American Colonization Society, giving ideas on colonization in Africa before the movement gained headway. This letter, dated at Baltimore, August 20th, 1817, is an extremely interesting document covering all phases of the subject and showing Harper very favorable to colonization.

B. Package of around sixty letters to the Board of Managers of the Maryland State Colonization Society, dealing chiefly with emigration to Africa during the year 1832.

C. Collection of around seventy-five letters from the Rev. William McKenney to numerous correspondents, 1834-35. These papers seem to be a peculiarly full and valuable source of information on all phases of colonization activities: emigrants, whites and blacks to serve as missionaries and teachers, the purchase of supplies, colonization itself, etc. A letter written January 24, 1934 to Senator H. T. Emory presents a keen analysis of the situation in Maryland at that time. Particularly interesting are two letters to John McDonough in New Orleans, dated February 12th, 1834 and March 10th, 1835, which sketch the first moves for colonization by the Maryland Society. The first was written on seeing notice of McDonough's application to the Louisiana Legislature for permission to educate his slaves; the second approves the plan heartily as giving the slaves the Gospel and the prospect of freedom in the land of their forefathers.

D. Report of the Executive Committee on Dr. James Hall's account, and other papers, 1836.

E. List of contributions to the Maryland State Colonization Society, 1836, unpublished in the official `Journal.'

F. Package containing letters to the Board of Managers, and a large number of minutes and proceedings of the Board, 1837.

G. Annual report of the Home Agent, 1837.

H. Reports of travelling agents, etc., 1848-49.

Reel #18

V. Invoice Books, Oct. 1833 – Apr. 1860

The Invoice Books give lists of all the goods sent to Liberia, with prices of the various articles and names of the vessels on which they were shipped. Among the items enumerated are: clothing, food, books, medicines, household supplies and furnishings, etc. The ships with the largest cargoes were the `Ann' ($8,316.11), the `Niobe' ($7,131.40), and the `Liberia Packet' (Voyage A, $5,518.13; Voyage B, $5,615.69). The vessels with the smallest shipments were the `Columbia' ($596.03), the `Liberia Packet' (Voyage D, $1,303.35; Voyage H, $1,460.78), and the `Trafalgar' ($1,470.89).

VI. Financial Records

The financial records of the Maryland State Colonization Society are amazingly complete from start to finish, and it is doubtful whether more material could be desired on this phase of the colonization problem.

A. Day Books, Mar. 1831 – Nov. 1880

The Day Books contain records of all financial transactions at the Colonization Office in Baltimore, receipts and payments entered in the order of their occurrence. Marginal numbers refer to pages in the Journal where the various items may be found.

B. Journal, Mar. 1831 – July 1880

The Journal gives the accounts of the Colonization Society in less detail than the Day Books, but the sums are identical. Marginal numbers refer to the pages in the Ledger where the accounts are listed individually.

List, Contributions to the Society, 1836

C. Ledgers, Mar. 1831 – 1839

The Ledger contains individual accounts, with the credit and debit columns balanced. Included are the expenses of the different expeditions to Liberia, the accounts of agents, and special funds, such as the public farm in the colony, the `Cape Palmas Packet' (a newspaper), and the like. Numbers refer to pages in the Journal whence the sums are extracted, and there is an index loose in the front.

Reel #19

Ledgers, 1835 – Dec. 1864

D. Balance Sheets, 1831 – 1844

A package has in it balance sheets of the Maryland State Colonization Society for the years 1831-44 inclusive. They seem to indicate total expenditures of $189,940.43 for those first fourteen years of the Society's existence.

E. Bank Books, 1832 – 1840

The first bank book has a record of deposits in and withdrawals from the Union Bank of Maryland, balanced at the bottom of each page. At the end there is a list of subscribers to the `Maryland Colonization Journal,' 1843-45. The second bank book covers a longer period of time, with three years' duplication. In the front are the accounts of Dr. George Keyser, General Agent, for 1835.

F. Bills, 1833 – Aug. 1837

Ten packages contain bills for debts owed by the Colonization Society from 1833 to 1864, inclusive. There are itemized lists of supplies of all kinds, so that the collection provides a vast store of material on the economic history of the middle nineteenth century. The rise and fall of prices is only one phase which catches the eye more quickly than others. An example of the kind of thing found here is a list of medicines bought in October 1854 from J. Irwin Smith, druggist, 122 Pratt Street Wharf. Included are such familiar items as magnesia, calomel, gum arabic, iodine, black pepper, sugar of lead, bicarbonate of soda, ammonia, etc. The total bill is $95.49. Further insight into customs of the times may be gained from odds and ends like the monthly bills for postage, sent out by the Postmaster of Baltimore on regular printed forms.

Reel #20

Bills, Aug. 1837 – June 1846

Reel #21

Bills, Nov. 1846 – 1864

G. Check Book, Dec. 1853 – 1875

The Check Book has the stubs of 387 checks, with notations of the purposes for which drawn. Among the items listed are: office rent, salaries, travelling expenses, expeditions, medicines and foodstuffs for voyages, etc.

Reel #22

H. Checks, 1837 – 1875

There are five packages of cancelled checks, covering, with one brief period omitted, the entire history of the Colonization Society.

I. Canceled Drafts, 1847 – 1865

Three packages of cancelled drafts.

J. Manager’s Accounts

1. Four packages containing vouchers for expenditures by the State Managers and some cancelled checks, 1832-33.

2. Accounts of the Rev. William McKenney with the State Managers, 1833-36.

3. Rough draft of the annual account of the Managers for the inspection of the Legislature, 1834.

4. Five packages of cancelled checks drawn by the State Managers, 1834-51.

5. Three packages of receipts to Managers of the State Fund, 1835-37.

K. Traveling Agent’s Books, 1850 – 1859

The books were kept by the Rev. John Leys and the Rev. P. D. Lipscomb during their service as agents travelling through Maryland soliciting funds for the Colonization Society. Information given includes dates, names, residences, and the sums given or subscribed; there are many signatures.

L. Contribution Book, 1839 – 1845

The Contribution Book lists contributors and subscribers by localities, with notations of the amounts given and paid. It includes subscriptions to the `Cape Palmas Packet' during 1838-45.

M. Account Books, 1831 – 1851

1. Account book of Ira Easter, agent, 1831-37.

2. Individual accounts, 1833-39.

3. Accounts of the Colonization Society with the State of Maryland, balanced, 1833-51.

4. General account book, giving receipts and expenditures, 1835-42.

VII. Special Funds

Reel #23

A. Colonial Accounts, 1838 – 1860

1. Thirty-four semi-annual accounts of the colony in Liberia, 1837-52 inclusive, sent to the Maryland Society by Governor John B. Russworm and other officials. Each report contains detailed figures on the expenses involving all phases of colonial activity: contingent expenses, poor and sick fund, dash account, farm, fortification, medicine, emigrants, repairs, roads, store, mill, jail, ladies school, colony school, nurses home. There is here an immense amount of valuable data on life in Liberia up to the time of the establishment of the Republic.

2. Package containing semi-annual reports of the colonial agency at Cape Palmas, 1833-36, transmitted by Dr. James Hall, Agent.

3. Package containing semi-annual accounts of Dr. Oliver Holmes, Agent, 1836, with interesting inventories of the supplies on hand.

4. Package containing semi-annual accounts of Dr. Samuel McGill, Agent, 1853-54.

5. A similar package containing accounts of Joseph T. Gibson, Agent, 1854-60.

B. Stevens Correspondence,

Copies of letters sent and received regarding the fund donated by John Stevens of Easton, Maryland, for building a vessel to carry emigrants to Liberia. Included are accounts of the ship `M. C. Stevens' for 1856-63.

C. Hall School Fund, 1875 – 1894

Copies of letters sent concerning the use of the Maryland State Colonization Society funds left after the cessation of active work for the support of a school in Cape Palmas. The transcripts are prefaced by a statement of Dr. James Hall giving the history of the Society and of the School Fund.

Reel #24

D. Maryland Colonization Journal

Accounts of Subscribers, 1838 – 1843 (with index)

1. Individual accounts of subscribers, 1838-43, with alphabetical index (loose) giving places of residence and page numbers in record book.

2. Subscribers listed by localities, no dates; three successive compilations, including exchanges. Lists in back all post offices in Maryland, with the postmasters and their compensations. Inserted throughout are lists of the members of the Legislature in the form of clippings from the `Baltimore Sun.'

3. Subscriptions for 1843-45, signatures and payments (see Bank Book 1, where this item is to be found).

Geographical List of Subscribers

Subscriptions, 1843 – 1845 (see also VI “E” book 1)

VIII. Commissions and Reports

(Boards and Agents)

A. Commissions, 1832-37, from the State of Maryland to the Board of Managers for the removal of free people of color to Africa. Signed by Governors George Howard, James Thomas, and Thomas Veazey.

B. Package containing reports of the Board of Managers and committees, 1833-36, with a few letters about slaves to be sent to Liberia.

C. Printed copies of the Third, Fourth, Fifth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, and Eleventh Annual Reports of the Maryland State Colonization Society, 1835-43, in pamphlet form for distribution to members and the public.

D. Loose copies of the Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, Thirteenth, January 1852, January 1856, and January 1858 Reports of the Board of Managers of the Colonization Society. There are duplicates in six instances.

E. Bound volume containing the Third to Eighth (inclusive) Annual Reports, 1835-40.

F. The Eleventh Annual Report of the American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Color of the United States, published in Washington, 1828.

G. The Forty-ninth Annual Report of the American Colonization Society, Washington, 1866.

IX. Census Records and Vital Statistics of Maryland in Liberia

A. Census of free blacks in Maryland, 1832, compiled by the sheriffs of the various counties in compliance with the legislative Act of 1831, passed as a result of fears aroused by Nat Turner's insurrection in Virginia. There are the original records for Allegany, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Caroline, Cecil, Charles, Dorchester, Frederick, Kent, Montgomery, Queen Anns, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, and Washington Counties.

B. Census records of Maryland in Liberia:

1. Book with lists for 1837-43, dividing citizens according to sexes and ages, and giving occupations. bound

2. Loose copies of census figures for 1837 and 1843, duplicated in the book.

3. Register of births, deaths, and marriages for 1842.

4. Report of military strength, 1844.

5. Lists of ship arrivals, scholars, imports, exports, births, deaths, and marriages during 1845.

6. Census figures for 1848, with statistics of acres cultivated and the different kinds of trees on them.

7. Census figures for 1849 and 1852.

Reel #25

X. Manumissions and Emigrants

A. Manumission Books, Lists: , 1832 – September 1834

The lists of persons manumitted include the name, age, by

whom manumitted, how (deed, will, or sale), the date, the county, when freedom is to commence, and (rarely) remarks.

Reel #26

Manumission Book Lists, Sept. 1834 – 1860

B. Manumission Books, Copies, 1832 – 1860

The copies of the manumissions are taken from the original documents sent in by the county officials, and they are numbered to correspond with the names in the lists. Volume 1 contains at the end a list of 533 emigrants during 1832-38, giving age, by whom manumitted, county of record, occupation, destination, how sent, when sent, and the amounts paid.

C. Manumissions, Copies, 1832 – Apr. 5, 1849

Twenty-nine packages of certified copies of deeds of manumission, wills, and bills of salc, 1832-60, sent to the Colonization Society by county clerks and registers of wills. These papers are numbered to agree with the lists, but give much fuller information; they are the documents copied into the books just described.

Reel #27

Manumissions, Copies, Apr. 1849 – 1860

D. Emigration

A volume containing a list of the colored people sent out to Africa by the Maryland colonization group from 1831 to 1862, giving ship, date, name, age, county of origin, and occasional remarks.

E. Charter Parties

One package of charters for vessels to take negroes to Liberia during 1835-37, supplying full data about the ships and their use for colonization purposes.

XI. Liberian Colonization

A. Land Deeds

1. A book containing copies of eleven deeds made between 1834 and 1849 by native chieftains, with confirmations by the headmen of the various districts concerned.

2. A package containing the original deeds, plus one other marked Null. The treaties give considerations paid for the land in the form of mutual defence, advantages from the trading posts, schools, General Benefit, and presents or `dashes.'

B. Travels: MISSING

1. A package of journals or diaries of sundry tours in Liberia during 1844-45, including two made by Governor Russworm. MISSING

2. The journal of Messrs. Stewart and Banks' journey to the Pah Country in 1845, filling twenty-nine pages and accompanied by a chart of the terrain traversed. MISSING

Both sets of journals are extremely interesting reports on the country and the people, with accounts of numerous colorful incidents.

C. Miscellaneous Affairs

1. A package of documents relating to the trial of James Thomson in 1837, with the original of Thomson's own statement. He was accused of adultery with native girls while connected with the Episcopal mission, and confessed, but was acquitted for lack of evidence.

2. The correspondence between Governor Russworm, Captain Ramsey of the U. S. S. `Vandalia,' and others relative to the case of the Rev. Mr. Griswold and robberies committed by the natives.

XII. Newspapers

A. Maryland Colonization Journal, May 1835 – May 1844

This paper was published in Baltimore by the Maryland State Colonization Society. The copies listed above are bound in volumes, and there are a number of duplicates.

Reel #28

Maryland Colonization Journal, June 1844 – June 1855

Reel #29

Maryland Colonization Journal, Sep. 1855 – May 1861

B. The African Repository and Colonial Journal:

 1. January 1st, 1841 (XVII, 1) - December 1842 (XVIII, 14).

The American Colonization Society issued this paper from its headquarters in Washington. The change from semi-monthly to monthly status was made with the issue of March 1842.

C. The Colonization Herald and General Register:

1. April 12th 1843 (n. s. II, 1) - December 1858 (n. s. # 102).

This journal was the official organ of the Pennsylvania Colonization Society, and changed from a semi-monthly to a monthly in 1843. The numbering system was shifted more than once, so that it is rather difficult to follow without careful observation. There are six or eight copies missing in the collection.

D. New-York Colonization Journal:

1. December 1850 (I, 1) - December 1858 (VIII, 12).

The Rev. J. B. Pinney edited this paper for the New York State Colonization Society, and it appeared monthly throughout its existence. One copy seems to be missing from the file in the archives of the Maryland colonization group.

E. Liberia Herald: Feb. 1842 – Feb. 1857

This interesting paper was published in Monrovia itself by Hilary Teage, editor and proprietor. Originally a monthly, it shifted to semi-monthly status in 1845. It has value as an eye-witness reporter of events in Liberia during the fifteen years preceding independence and as a reflection of colonial opinion on the happenings of that period. A number of copies are lacking, and after 1851 the gaps are more frequent and quite noticeable.

Reel #30

XIII. Colonization Pamphlets

Declaration of Rights, Constitution, and 18 other items including

A bound volume with this title includes twenty-eight original pamphlets dealing with Liberia and colonization affairs. They are:

[UNK]1. The Declaration of Rights, and the Constitution of the State of Maryland in Liberia. (The Declaration is printed on blue paper, the Constitution on white.)

[UNK]2. The Duty of a Rising Christian State to Contribute to the World's Well-Being and Civilization, and the Means by which it may Perform the Same. The Annual Oration Before the Council and the Citizens of Monrovia, Liberia, July 26, 1855. By the Rev. Alexander Crumwell, B.A., Queen's College, Cambridge. London, 1856.

[UNK] 3. Four Months in Liberia: or African Colonization Exposed. By William Nesbit, of Hollidaysburg. Pittsburgh, 1855.

[UNK] 4. Four Years in Liberia. A Sketch of the Life of the Rev. Samuel Williams. With Remarks on the Missions, Manners and Customs of the Natives of Western Africa. Together with an Answer to Nesbit's Book. Philadelphia, 1857.

[UNK] 5. Liberian Colonization: or Reasons Why the Free Colored People should Remove to Liberia. By an Abolitionist and Colonizationist. New York, 1857.

[UNK] 6. The Report of the Committee of Adjudication, of the National Fair, of the Republic of Liberia; Held in the City of Monrovia, December 14-21, A. D. 1857. Monrovia, 1858.

[UNK] 7. Message of the President of the Republic of Liberia to the Legislature, at the Commencement of their Session December 1858. Monrovia, 1858.

[UNK] 8. Acts of the Legislature of the Republic of Liberia Passed During the Session Commencing in December 1857. Monrovia, 1858.

[UNK] 9. Message of the President of the Republic of Liberia, Communicating Matters and Things in Reference to the French System of Emigration on the Liberian Coast. January 6, 1859. Monrovia, 1859.

[UNK] (no number) The Inaugural Address/of the/President of the Republic of Liberia/Delivered at Monrovia/ Before the Legislature in Joint Convention/January 4th, 1858.

10. Message of the President of the Republic of Liberia; to the Legislature, at the Commencement of their Session December 9th, 1859. Monrovia, 1859.

11. Injunction Case. Court of Quarter Session and Common Pleas, March Term, 1858; His Hon: Judge Moore, Presiding. Extraordinary Judicial Proceedings!! and Remarkable Decision!! Monrovia, 1858.

12. Fourth Annual Message of Stephen A. Benson, President of Liberia. Delivered to the Legislature, December 1858. (From the New-York Colonization Journal. April 1859.)

13. A Voice from Bleeding Africa, on behalf of her Exiled Children. By Edward W. Blyden. Liberia, 1856.

14. A Vindication of the African Race; Being a Brief Examination of the Arguments in Favor of African Inferiority. By Edward W. Blyden. Monrovia, 1857.

15. Liberia Described. A Discourse Embracing a Description of the Climate, Soil, Productions, Animals, Missionary Work, Improvements, andc. with a Full Description of the Acclimating Fever. By Armistead Miller, a Citizen of Monrovia, Liberia. Philadelphia, 1859.

16. African Colonization. (Letter from Alexander M. Cowan, Agent of the Kentucky State Colonization Society, to John H. B. Latrobe, October 6, 1855.)

17. Inquiry into the Causes which have Retarded the Accumulation of Wealth and Increase of Population in the Southern States: in which the Question of Slavery is Considered in a Politico-Economical Point of View. By a Carolinian. Washington, 1846.

18. The Foreign Slave-Trade. Can it be Revised Without Violating the Most Sacred Principles of Honor, Humanity, and Religion. By Rev. J. Leighton Wilson, D.D. (From the Southern Presbyterian Review. 1859.)

19. The Duty of the Christian Church in Relation to African Missions. By J. Leighton Wilson. NewYork, 1858.

20. An Address to the Free People of Color of the State of Maryland. (By Dr. James Hall, Baltimore, December 1858.)

[UNK] 21. The Regina Cocli. Correspondence between the Hon. James H. Hammond and John H. B. Latrobe, Esq. Baltimore, 1858.

[UNK] 22. Colonization. A Notice of Victor Hugo's Views of Slavery in the United States, in a Letter from John H. B. Latrobe, of Baltimore, to Thomas Suffern, of New York. Baltimore, 1851.

[UNK] 23. Cotton Cultivation in Africa. Suggestions on the Importance of the Cultivation of Cotton in Africa, in Reference to the Abolition of Slavery in the United States, Through the Organization of an African Colonization Society. By Benjamin Coates. Philadelphia, 1858.

[UNK] 24. The Appeal of the Religious Society of Friends in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Etc., to their Fellow-Citizens of the United States on Behalf of the Coloured Races. (By Benjamin Coates.) Philadelphia, 1858.

[UNK] 25. Sketches of Liberia: Comprising a Brief Account of the Geography, Climate, Productions, and Diseases of the Republic of Liberia. Second Edition, Revised. By J. W. Lugenbeel, Late Colonial Physician and United States Agent in Liberia. Washington, 1853.

[UNK] 26. Western Africa, a Mission Field; or, The Moral and Physical Condition of Western Africa, considered with Reference to the Founding of Mission Settlements of Colored People. By Rev. Morris Officer, Missionary to Western Africa. Pittsburgh, 1856.

[UNK] 27. African Colonization Unveiled. By Edmund Ruffin, of Virginia. (Washington, n. d.)

[UNK] 28. The Virginian History of African Colonization. By Rev. P. Slaughter. Richmond, 1855. (xx, 116 pages.)

XIV. Books

[UNK]

1. An Account of the Gold Coast of Africa: with a Brief History of the African Company. By Henry Meredith, Esq. Member of the Council, and Governor of Winnebah Fort. London, 1812.

2. The Travels of Ali Bey, in Morocco, Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, Arabia, Syria, and Turkey, between the Years 1803 and 1807. Written by Himself. Volume 2. Philadelphia, 1816.

3. Constitution and Laws of Maryland in Liberia; with an Appendix of Precedents. Published by Authority of the Maryland State Colonization Society. Baltimore, 1837.

(3 copies.)

4. A Plea for Africa, being Familiar Conversations on the Subject of Slavery and Colonization. By F. Freeman. Philadelphia, 1837.

5. Report of Mr. Kennedy, of Maryland, from the Committee on Commerce of the House of Representatives of the United States, on the Memorial of the Friends of African Colonization.... House of Representatives, Report no. 283, 27th Congress, 3rd session. Washington, 1843.

6. Tables Showing the Number of Emigrants and Recaptured Africans sent to the Colony of Liberia by the Government of the United States;... Together with a Census of the Colony, and a Report of its Commerce, September 1843. Washington, 1845.

7. A History of Colonization on the West Coast of Africa. By Archibald Alexander, D. D. Philadelphia, 1846.

8. Constitution and Laws of Maryland in Liberia; with an Appendix of Antecedents. 2nd edition. Baltimore, 1847.

(2 copies.)

9. Proceedings Against William Lloyd Garrison, for a Libel. Baltimore, 1847. (Francis Todd of Newburyport, Mass., was complainant.)

10. Africa's Redemption the Salvation of our Country. By Rev. F. Freeman. New York, 1852.

11. Slavery and Anti-Slavery; a History of the Great Struggle in Both Hemispheres; with a View of the Slavery Question in the United States. By William Goodell. New York, 1852.

12. The Statute Laws of the Republic of Liberia, Carefully Compiled from the Laws of the Commonwealth, and Laws of the Republic;... Published by Authority. Monrovia, 1856.

13. Liberia, as I Found it, in 1858. By Rev. Alexander M. Cowan, Agent Kentucky Colonization Society. Frankfort, 1858. (2 copies, one in paper cover.)

Grebo Kona Ah Te: or, History of the Greboes. By Right Rev. John Payne, D. D. New York, 1860. (In the native language.)

15. Liberia's Offering: being Addresses, Sermons, etc. By Rev. Edward W. Blyden. New York, 1862.

16. The Future of Africa: being Addresses, Sermons, etc., etc., Delivered in the Republic of Liberia. By Rev. Alexander Crummell, B. A., Queen's College, Cambridge. New York, 1862.

17. Narrative of a Journey to Musardu, the Capital of the Western Mandingoes. By Benjamin Anderson. New York, 1870.

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XV. Pamphlets

1. Address of the Board of Managers of the Maryland State Colonization Society. n.d.

2. A letter from Gen. Harper, of Maryland, to Elias B. Caldwell, Esq., Secretary of the American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Colour, in the United States with their own consent, August 20, 1817. Baltimore, 1818.

[This is a printed copy of the letter (A) which Hoyt put under section IV - It is to Elias, not Charles, B. Caldwell.]

3. Proceedings of a Meeting of the Friends of African Colonization. Held in the City of Baltimore on the 17th of October, 1827. Baltimore, 1828

4. An Address delivered at the Annual Meeting of the Maryland State Colonization Society, in the City of Annapolis, January 23, 1835. by Charles C. Harper Baltimore, 1835

5. Report of the Committee of the Board of Managers of the Maryland State Colonization Society, to which was referred the Report of the Committee on Auxiliary Relations of the American Colonization Society. Baltimore, 1837

6. Report of the Committee on the Coloured Population, of answers of the President of the Colonization Society of Maryland, in obedience to the Order adopted by the House of Delegates, on the 4th January, 1841.

7. Colonization and Abolition. An Address delivered by John H.B. Latrobe, of Maryland, at the Anniversary Meeting of the New York State Colonization Society, held in Metropolitan Hall, May 13, 1852. Baltimore, 1852

8. African Colonization. An Address delivered by John H.B. Latrobe, President of the American Colonization Society, at the Anniversary Meeting of the Massachusetts Colonization Society, in the Music Hall, Boston, May 25, 1853. Baltimore, 1853

9. Colonization of the Free Colored Population of Maryland and of such Slaves as may hereafter become free. Statement of Facts, for the use of those who have not reflected on this subject. Baltimore, 1832.

10. African Colonization. An Address delivered by Hon. John H.B. Latrobe, President of the American Colonization Society, at the Anniversary Meeting of the American Colonization Society, held in the Hall of the House of Representatives, Washington City, January 21, 1862. Washington, 1862

11. Emigration, an Aid to the Evangelization of Africa. A Sermon, preached in Trinity Church, Monrovia, Liberia, West Africa, to the Barbadian Emigrants, May 14, 1863, the Sunday after their arrival. by the Rev. Alexander Crummel, B.A.. Boston, 1865

12. Letter of the Liberian Clergy, from Monrovia, July 1864 Monrovia, December, 1864

13 Our Origin, Dangers, and Duties. The Annual Address before the Mayor and Common Council of the City of Monrovia, July 26, 1865, the Day of National Independence... by Rev. Edward W. Blyden, A.M. New York, 1865

14. African Colonization. An Address delivered at the Fifty-second Annual Meeting of the American Colonization Society, held in Washington, D.C., January 19, 1869, by Hon. Joseph J. Roberts, President of Liberia College, and formerly for eight years President of the Liberia Republic. New York City, n.d.

15. Liberia: Its Origin, Rise, Progress and Results. An Address delivered before the American Colonization Society, January 20, 1880, by Hon. John H.B. Latrobe. Washington City, 1880

16. Maryland in Liberia. A Paper read before the Maryland Historical Society, March 9, 1885, by John H.B. Latrobe, President of the Society. Baltimore, 1885

17. The First Report of the Girls' Graded Church School. City of Monrovia, Liberia. Monrovia

18. Inaugural Address of His Excellency Arthur Barclay, Twenty-ninth President of the Republic of Liberia; Delivered January 4, 1904, before the Senate and House of Representatives. Printed by Authority. Monrovia, 1904

XVI. Maps

1. Cape Palmas, Liberia, 1838.

2. Plan of Township of Harper in Cape Palmas, Liberia.

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